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129 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A machine that performs four basic operations: input, processing, output, storage
A collection of related components that have been designed to work together
Computer System
the physical components of a computer
A list of functions that tells the computer that tells the computer how to perform the four operations in the information processing cycle to perform a task.
includes all the programs that give the computer its instructions
Consists of all programs you can use to perform a task
Application software
In this function, the computer accepts data
refers to unorganized, raw, facts
these enable you to enter data into the the cmputer for processing
Input devices
data that has been simplified and organized in a way that people can use
the computer's processing circuity,performs operations ont he output data. Referred to as the "brain" of the computer
this temporarily stores the programs and data with which the CPU interacts
RAM (Random Access Memory)
in this process, the computer provides the results of the processing information in a way that people can understand.
the computer saves the results of processing to be used again later
the fifth operation in the information processing cycle, involves moving data within a computer or between computers
enables a computer to connect to a computer network
Communication devices
a group of two or more computer systems connected together, usually for the pupose of sharing input/output devices and other resources
a communication device that enables the computer to access other computers and the internet via telephone lines, cable, and wireless connections
designed to meet the computing needs of an individual. They include Apple's Macintosh and the more numerous IBM compatible computers
PC (Personal computer)
Why are some pc's called IBM compatible?
because the first computers were made by IBM
Designed for use at a desk or an office enviornment. This is a personal computer that runs programs to help individuals accomplish their work more productivley and to gain access to the internet
desktop computer
Who of the leading producer of desktop computers?
small enough to fit into a breifcase and is portable because many people need it to travel with them.
notebook computers
these are a bit larger than notebooks, they can not fit into a breifcase
Laptop computers
notebook computers that omit some components (such as CD drive) to cut down in weight or size.
Who are the leading producers of notebooks?
Dell's Inspiron Series, Toshiba's Satellite and Tecra series, IBM's thinkpad, and Apple's iBook.
What are the most popular laptop computers?
a type of notebook computer that has an LCD screen that the user can write on using a special purpose pen or sylus.
The user's handwriting is converted into text, or can be left hand-written.
tablet PC
sometimes called hand-held computers, pack much of a notebook's power into a much lighter package and lower price. Include built-in software for scheduling appointments and sending a receiving e-mail.
Personal Digital Assistants
essentially a moniter with everything else built in. The only external devices are a keyboard and mouse. This design might be the wave of the future.
all-in-one computers
provide much of a personal computer's functionality but at a lower price. These computers are designed to connect to a network, such as the internet. Able to acheive much of the hold in the market place.
Network computers and internet appliances
powerful tools for engineers, architects,circuit designers,financial analysts and other professionals who need exceptionally powerful processing and output capabilities.
Professional Workstations
are computers that make programs and data available to people who are connected to a computer network. Not designed for for individual use and are typicallt centralized from one location
users connect to servers using these. They are usually desktops, notebooks, work stations, or any other computer for an individual, to contact the server and obain the needed information.
mid-size computers that handle the computing needs of a smaller corporation or organization. They enable a wide range of users to connect to them simultaneously through PC's or terminals
minicomputers or mid-range servers.
computers that lack processing capabilities
designed to handle huge processing jobs in large corporations or government agancies
are ultra-fast computers that process large amounts of scientific data and then display the underlying patterns that have been discovered in the data
the disparity in computer ownership and internet accessis known as the
Digital Divide
this type of injury is caused by repeated motions that damage senstive nerve tissue in the hands, wrists, and arms. Sometimes these injuries require surgery
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
it means that the product matches the best posture for the human body
deals with computer related moral dilemmas and defines ethical priciples for computing professionals
Computer Ethics
the use of computers and computer programs to replace teachers and the time- place specifity of learning
the replacement of human workers by machines. Technology has been eliminating jobs through this.
this results when advancing technology makes an entire job category obsolete.
Structural Unemployment
uses cables, radio waves,or infrared signals to link computers or periphals, such as printers,within a small geographic area, such as a building or group of buildings
Local Area Network
uses long-distance transmission media to link computers seperated by few miles or even thousands of miles.
Wide Area Network
ex:internet, connects millions of LAN's throughout the globe
are expansion boards that fit into a computer's expansion slots. These are contained in the workstations
NIC-Network Interface Cards
any work station or peripheral that is connected to the network
The physical layout of a LAN is called its
is divided into layers, each of which has a function separate from that of the other layers.
the network design
most networks contain these. They are high-capacity, high-speed computers, with large hard disks
File Servers
this occurs when two workstations try to access a LAN
What are the advantages of Networks?
-Reduced hardware costs
-Application sharing
-Sharing information resources
-Centralized data management
-Connecting people
What are the disadvantages of networks?
Loss of autonomy
-Lack of privacy
-Security threats
-Loss of productivity
are fixed, formalized standards that specify how computers can communicate over a network.
is the total package of protocols that specify how a network functions.
protocol suite
are communications standards to which modems conform.
modulation protocols
is the rate at which two modems can exchange data. It is measured in bits per second (bps).
data transfer rate
A modulation protocol called ______ enables modems to transfer data at 56 Kbps.
is the overall design of a network.
network architecture
is the vertical (top to bottom) arrangement of the layers; each layer is governed by its own set of protocols.
protocol stack
Ethernet – standard for large and small business
LocalTalk – simplest LAN technology
IBM Token Ring Network
LAN technologies
Wireless LAN
Uses a central server or access point
What are the advantages of Wi-Fi?
Fast (11 Mbps)
Long range
Integrates with existing networks
WAN contain long-distance trunk lines called
WAN have a local access number called a
point of presence (POP)
high-capacity transmission lines, can be regional, continental, or transcontinental.
can carry 2.5 gigabites of data per second
Internet backbones
is the oldest packet switching protocol; it is used by automated teller machines and credit card authorization devices.
New protocols designed for digital lines and faster data transfer rates are:
Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS)
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Networks create an end-to-end circuit between the sending and receiving computers.
Electronic switches establish and maintain the connection.
Circuit switching
Outgoing messages are divided into fixed-size data units called packets.
Packets are numbered and addressed to the receiving computer.
Routers examine the packets and send them to their destination.
packet switching
what are the advantages of circuit switching?
Voice and real-time transmission
No delivery delays
what are the disadvantages of Circuit switching?
A direct electrical connection between the computers is required
What are the advantages of packet switching?
Efficient, less expensive, and reliable
Will function if part of the network is down
what are the disadvantages of packet switching?
-Delays in receiving packets
-Not ideal for real-time voice communication
What are the characteristics of IT professionals?
-Keep up with fast-changing technology
-Work with IT in all its various forms
-Are needed by both small and large companies
Senior-level management
Defines the IS department’s mission, objectives, and budgets
Cheif Information Officer CIO
Middle-management position
Emphasizes overall system reliability
Director of Computer Operations
Middle-management position
Emphasizes overall network reliability
Director of Network Services
Installs, maintains, and supports computer networks
Network Engineer
Installs, maintains, and supports the operating system
Systems Programmer/Administrator
Installs, maintains, and supports client/server applications
Client/Service Manager
Interacts with others to design information systems
Systems Analyst
designs codes and tests software
writes code according to specification
Senior-level management position in charge of all product development activities
Director of Research and Development
Computer scientists who are challenged to create new, cutting-edge technologies
Software Architect
Manages the details of software development projects
Software Engineer
Gives technical presentations and supports products on-site
Systems Engineer
Develops new programs under the direction of the software architect
Software Developer
Provides assistance to customers who need help with products
Customer Support
Fastest growing industries in US economy:
Software publishing
Computer system design
Related computer services
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
Transfer of jobs from workers in one country to workers in other countries
Transfer of labor from the firm to outside entities
Computer Science (CS)
Computer Information Systems (CIS)
Systems and Software Engineering
Electrical Engineering
Education for traditional IT careers
uses the principles of science and engineering to improve computing.
Computer Science
Theory rather than the practical applications of computing is emphasized.
Training is technical and involves higher mathematics (calculus).
Computer Science
Computer science Training also involves
Programming languages
Programming language structure
Advanced computer graphics
Artificial intelligence
Relational database design
departments are usually located within business schools.
focuses on the practical applications of computing.
The skills needed by businesses are emphasized.
Computer Information Systems
focuses on digital circuit design and communication technologies.
Jobs are in hardware development.
Electrical engineering
Last from one day to one week
Presented by hardware or software developers or companies specializing in training for new technology
training seminars
Indispensable resources for IT professionals
Either cover the entire world of computer issues or are aimed at a specific part
computer magazines, journals,and newspapers
Annual meetings in which manufacturers, designers, and dealers showcase their products
trade shows
Provide a way to keep up with a particular area of interest
Professional Organizations
Association for Women in Computing
Association for Computing Machinery
Association for Women in Computing
Association of Internet Professionals
Data Processing Management Association
Network Professional Association
Ability of an individual to work effectively in a team environment
Ability to plan and manage a project
project management
Writing and interpersonal skills as well as the ability to give presentations
Some knowledge of business
business acumen
Experience in working with Oracle database and client/server applications
Language of choice for software development
Rapid application development and code reusability
Microsoft Visual Basic
Knowledge of Internet protocols
Creates engaging presentations, including animation and video
Interactive Digital Media Specialist
Designs and maintains a Web server and related database servers
Web master
Designs, develops, tests, and documents new Web-based services for Web sites
Web Application Engineer
Creates high-quality content pages for Web sites
Web Specialist
Installs and maintains firewalls, antivirus software, and other security software
Network/Internet Security Specialist
is a skills and knowledge assessment organized by computer industry vendors.
To obtain a certificate you
Take courses at a college, training center, or study on your own
Take a comprehensive examination
Certificate is issued when the exam is passed
What are certification risks?
Students focus on a specific vendor’s technology
Vendor’s technology may become obsolete
Having one skill isn’t enough
Hiring people with narrow training may be risky for employers
What are certification benefits?
Enable employers to assess skills from a pool of applicants
Employer may increase salary offers