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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
10th cent. capital of Umayyad Spain
Cordoba in Andalusia-leading city in Islamic (and western) arts and civilization. Captured in 711 from the Visigoths.
Situation for Jews and Christians in 10th cent Cordoba.
The established communities were tolerated as long as Muslim rulership was uncontested.
Abd al-Rahman ibn Muawiya
Umayyad prince (escaped Abbasid massacre) who took control of al-Andalus and made Cordoba his capital. At the end of the century, he constructed the Great Mosque, "Kaaba of the West."
Abd al-Rahman III
Cordoba saw its greatest under his rule (912-961). Spanish Islam flourished. His wealth and army were unmatched and in 929 he declared himself as caliph.
Cordoba in 1013
Sacked by the Berbers
What were the two main regions by which the Islamic world was split up (politically and culturally) in the 16-18th centuries?
1. Territory of the Near East, India, and Central Asia where Turco-Mongol forces had established four major states by the early 16th cent. These were the Ottoman (Istanbul), Safawid (Isfahan), Mughal empires (Agra), and Uzbeks of W. Turkistan (Bukhara).
2. Territory of N. Africa, a major part of Sudanic Africa, and SE Asia. This region mainly consisted of merchants, ulama, or sufis who established dynasties and converted local elites to Islam.
What had happened to the dispersed Islamic world by 1800?
Good grief, by then, they had entered a period of economic, political, and cultural challenge from a rising Europe.
What four states stood for the high triumph of Turkic military and political influence but not culturally?
Otttoman, Safawid, Uzbek, and Mughal states.
Common Turkic identity of the Ottoman, Uzbek, and Mughal states resulted in the following of a Hanafi code of Islamic law. How did the Safawids contrast in this aspect? What were the effects?
They led a militantly evangelical Shia sufi order and enforced the Shia order over much of the Iranian plateau. This caused an increase in conflicts with the Ottomans and Uzbeks. Agressive movements incorporated a religious quality to the warfare b/w the Safawids and Uzbeks (in the Khurasan area of NE Iran)and with the Ottomans.
What explained the nearly nonexistant religious conflict b/w the Safawids and the Mughals?
Their military confrontations had more to do with strategic control of the valuable agricultural and commercial centre of Qandahar in south-cent. Afghanistan. In addition to this, the Mughal emperors were indebted to the Safawids for restoring Mughal power in the mid-16th cent. AND to the early Mughal rulers, dynastic loyalty had nothing to do with religion. This is shown by their record of employing Iranian Shia Muslims and Hindus, while ruling a majority of non-Muslims.
How did the four Turco-Mongol states consolidate in a positive manner, in spite of all of the political and religious indifferences?
They promoted commerce, stimulating trade directly by developing trade routes and accessibility and indirectly by regional security.
Where did the influx of New World silver that Europeans brought to pay for goods (late 16th cent) end up going?
Much of it that went to the Ottoman provinces and Iran wound up in Mughal India (the largest economy among the four Turco-Mongol states), where the fertile crecent provided support for a highly populated rural region (60-100 mill). The sales of their crops/textiles yielded wealth for the Mughals and other S. Asian states. The economies of the other three states were much more fragile.
What did the Safawids mainly rely on for foreign exchange during the 16th cent?
The Safawids were renowned for their silk industry.
What did the Uzbeks mainly rely on for export?
The nomadic population of the Uzbek khanates raised a great surplus of horses that were sold to China, Russsia, and India.
What did the Ottomans mainly rely on for export and economic support? Was there any decline in efficiency?
Of the three "fragile" Turco-Mongol states, the Ottomans held the greater resources. They benefited from the NE fertile crescent in agriculture, manufacture of cloths by the Bursa silk industry, and international trade. They also stimulated commerce by building elaborate commercial complexes (like the Bedestan of Istanbul).

By the mid-16th cent, their resources were not enough to pay for construction of Istanbul, military campaigns and Indian imports.