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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Birth and date of Muhammad?
c.570 in Mecca, place in western Arabia inhabited by the tribe of Quraysh.
What is the Sanctuary known as?
The Kaaba
Who was Muhammad's wife?
Khadija
In what period of Muhammad's life and where is he said to have received the message from G-d through Gabriel?
At 40 yrs old in a mountain cave.
Who brought Muhammad passages of the Quran throughout his life?
Gabriel
Why did Muhammad's followers get sent to Ethiopia?
To avoid the pagan Meccans while Muhammad searched for a place for a community in Arabia.
What was Yathrib?
Medina. An agricultural settlement north of Mecca that housed feuding Jews and Arabs. The Arab tribesman of Yathrib were not opposed to Muhammad's message and invited him there in hopes of restoration of order.
When did Muhammad leave Mecca for Medina and how is this time significant to the Muslim calendar?
622 CE, the Muslim calendar's starting point
After Muhammad's hijra to Medina, he drew up the Constitution of Medina. What were the two components of the 'umma' (community) required in this?
The umma had to be both a congragation and a state; worship and protection.
Khaybar
Inhabited by Jews before Islam's dominion, fell to Muhammad in 628.
What did the Muslims have in common with the Jews in Medina before Muhammad broke it? What were the consequences and issue involved?
Until the 2nd year after the hijra, they both prayed in the direction of Jerusalem and the Jews were an umma with those of the Constitution of Medina. Muhammad then changed the prayer direction (qibla) to Mecca and had to conquer Mecca b/c of paganism. Jews were simultaneously expulsed (and massacred and enslaved)in many places and directions.
When was Mecca conquered by Muhammad and what the significance of the purified Kaaba?
630 CE, the Kaaba restored as a monotheist sanctuary, believed to have been founded by Avraham and Ishmael.
True or False: Medina remained the political capital after Mecca was conquered by Muhammad.
True
Year of Muhammad's death
632 CE
What type of leadership and who was chosen for rule after Muhammad's death?
Monarchy (not kingship) was appointed to Abu Bakr who was a member of the Quraysh who had accompanied Muhammad on his hijra. He was an imam (leader of the community) and took the title of Khalifa (deputy of G-d).
What was Abu Bakr's first action upon his inauguration? Was he successful?
He sent an expedition into Byzantine Syria but was not successful.
Khalid ibn al-Walid?
Significance in 634?
Tribal chief who became a Muslim commander, helped consolidate Medinese control of Arabia and in 634 joined the Arabs against the Byzantinians. Conquered Syria from the Byzantinians.
How was the advance of Muslimss into Iran strengthened and made possible in the 640's?
In 634 the Sasanians were evicted from Iraq and resistance following this was weak and unorganized.
When was Egypt conquered?
642 CE
What major event interrupted the advancement of the Muslim conquest for dominion in 656?
Civil war