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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The world's largest Muslim populations are in what four countries?
The newest Muslim populations are in what two parts of the world?
western Europe
The world's largest Muslim populations are in what four countries?
The newest Muslim populations are in what two parts of the world?
western Europe
What was the relationship between Toldedo and Islam in the Middle Ages?
Toledo was part of Muslim Spain, the centre for transmission of Greek, Hellenistic philosophy, and science to the remainder of Europe by Arabic and Hebrew notation.
In what ways did Muslims contribute to the advancement of the West?
Science, medicine, trade, and agriculture (irrigation tech and crops).
During what time/when did Islamic Civilization start to take shape?
7th cent, when Arab tribesmen from the Arabian peninsula conquered the rivaling empires Byzantium and Sasanian Iran by surprise.
What were the advantages of the new civilization of Islam?
The cultural and economic situation had common religion and law. Travel and business were more predictable in nature, and education was both pursued and expressed.
The first significant centers of I. civilization were found where in the Arab world from 8-10 centuries?
The second set of significant centers of I. civilization were found where in the Turko-Iranian world in the 15-17th centuries?
What happened to ICiv in the 19th cent?
Western capitalism, industrial revolution, and the Enlightenment were large contributors to shift in the leadership to the West. Said that this was symbolized by Napoleon's invasion of Egypt in 1798.
What 5 countries had regained control from the West by the 1920's?
central Arabia
What is the caliphate?
Symbolic leadership of the Muslim community originating from Muhammed.
What had happend to the caliphate by the 1920's?
It had been dissipated.
When were the christian crusades?
11-13th centuries
How did Europe regard Islam prior to the crusades?
As christian heresy and Mohammad as a sorcerer who operated his success by the "divine imprimatur" he gave to sexual allowances.
What and how did the European attitude toward Islam shift with the crusades?
Translation of Quran into Latin and study brought more vehemence against Muhammad and his status, as well as his message which appeared to support violence and sexual freedom in the present and future worlds. Islam was, throughout the Renaissance and Reformation up to the Enlightenment, a heresy named a religion.
What was the common European idea of Islam in the 18-19th cent?
Missionaries were needed, artists associated Islam with sensuality, and holy wars dubbed it as 'fanatic.'
How did the scholars of the Enlightenment begin to view Islam?
Scholars, searching for qualities to refute Christianity, perceived Islam as having rational aspects, a transmitter of knowledge and civilization, Mohammad as a deep thinker and founder of this religion.
What are three examples of artistic works which orientalized Islam?
Galland's translation of Arabian nights (1704); Mozart in The Abduction from the Seraglio; Goethe in West-Easterly Diwan
Who were two women during the time of the Enlightenment that found Islam to be preferable to that of the woman's Western life?
Mary Wortley Montagu and Hester Stanhope
Three representations/institutions marking the beginning of modern study of Islam?
First chairs of Arabic at College de France (1539); University of Leiden (1613); University of Cambridge (1634)
How did the 18th century begin to see approach of Islamic study?
With work to obtain more accurate translations of religious and literary texts, as well as history.
Who were four scholars representing the beginning of non-Muslim Islamic specialists in the 20th cent?
Ignaz Goldziher (Hungary)
Snouck Hurgronje (Dutch)
D.B. MacDonald (Brit-Americ)
V.V. Barthold (Russian)
Who were three Christian Islamic specialists considered to be most regarded and what were their contributions in the understanding of Islam?
Louis Massignon (French, Roman Catholic)-understanding of spirituality;
Hamilton Gibb (English, Anglican Protestant)-framework of historical development;
Marshall Hodgson (American, Quaker)-Islam in context of world history
What are the three main charges of orientalism?
1. Relation of Islam as a static essence instead of a dynamic one.
2. Introducing "truths" about Muslim which only really have authority in western academics.
3. Creation of ideas that suggest and justify dominion of the West over Islam.
Explain the Muslim notion of 'kafirs' and the non-Muslim world.
Meaning "to deny," the non-Muslims were considered as infidels..those of Christians were of G-d but mistunderstood His message.
The 19th century saw what two struggles faced to the Islamic world?
1. Those against Christian missionaries and western influence.
2. Those in admiration of western military strength and strategy.
20th century saw the Christian world shift to Islam as more of an ally..What did Ataturk, the founder of today's Turkey, address to his National Assembly in 1927?
That the fez (ignorant, fanatical, irresponsible, and against progress/change)should be abolished and that Turkey should embrace the rest of the civilized world in order to confirm to them their civilized social life.
What two Muslim names stood out for their influence on Christian ideology?
1. Avicenna (Ibn Sina)-his Neo-Platonism was accepted by Christian mystics.
2. Averroes (Ibn Rushd)-commentary on Aristotle a major subject of debate through the 16th cent.
Several ancient south Arabian Kingdoms existed from the time of 500 BCE until the 6th cent. Who did they fall to?
Ethiopians then Iranians
Who were the Nabateans of Petra?
A minor kingdom of what is now Jordan, 4th cent BCE-106 AD, which developed via trade.
What was the caravan city of Palmyra?
A minor kingdom of what is now Syria, brought down by the Romans following the revolt of Queen Zenobia in 273 CE.
Who was Philip the Arab?
He gained rank through the army to become Roman emperor in 244-249 CE.
The 630s and the Byzantine and Sasanian empires saw what from the "Arab raiders?"
Attack following "truth revealed to them by G-d," damaging the Byzantinians and crushing the Sasanians.