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18 Cards in this Set

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Explain the Shia group.
Maintains that Muhammad designated his first cousin Ali, husband of his daughter Fatima, as his successor. They believe that this decendency continued in a line of Imams, each designated by the previous one.
Who were the "Twelvers?"
The larger group of the Shia, the Imamis, who believe that the last of the Imams who "disappeared" in 873 will reappear as the Mahdi (messiah) in the future.
Explain the Sunni group.
Maintain that Muhammad favored Abu Bakr as successor. He was accepted as Caliph by the umma leaders after Muhammad's death. Abu Bakr appointed Umar (r.634-44), who designated Uthman (r.644-656) w/ help of leaders, who was succeeded by Ali(r.656-661). The four caliphs form a "rightly guided Caliphate."
Shahada
The declaration of faith
Define the principle idea of a Muslim.
One who follows Islam, surrending to the will of G-d as shown to Muhammad, their revered prophet.
Hadith
Traditions or reports about Muhammad's behavior, written after his death.
The divisions of the Quran and arrangement
114 sections (suras-rows), made of verses (ayas-signs).
The first sura (Fatiha-opening) is used as prayer on a number of occasions but the rest of the suras are arranged in order of decreasing length.

Most divide the suras into portions received in Mecca (tend to be shorter) and parts received during Muhammad's life in Medina.

The Meccan passages are of personal accountability, reward and punishment in the after life, and the beauty of the living world-all towards G-d's sovereignty. Medinese passages have many of the themes of Mecca but also have lessons on social and legal matters, the main source for Sharia.
When was the Quran but down in written form?
During the reign of the 3rd caliph, Uthman (r. 644-656).
ahl al-kitab
Peoples of the Book-those people of religions who regard their foundational texts as sacred (ex: Buddists, Christians, Hindus, Jews, etc).
True or False: Islamization on the inhabitants of conquered lands was immediately enacted.
False, it happened gradually.
What non-religious aspect of Islam was most powerful/prestigious?
Literacy
How did Islamic civilization overcome the difficulties of protection to territorial cities from nomadic tribesmen?
The converted tribesmen were given a system of law, practice and learning to acculturate to.
Ibn Khaldun
1332-1406; Arab philopher of world histroy, developed theory of cyclic renewal and formation concerning North Africa in particular. In short, pastoralists tend to be tribal, who eluded and still elude authority of central government.
bled al-siba
Moroccan term for the tribal regions-"the land of insolence"
bled al-makhzen
Moroccan term for the "civilized center."
asabiya
According to Khaldun, the superiority of the tribes depends on this social solidarity.
The Sunni group makes up what % of the Muslim population?
~90%
A major influence on Muslim intellectual life.
Developed from the the academics and learning institutions that kept ideas from Persia, Greece, and India. Mainly, Hellenistic and Persian education contributed greatly to what Muslim society holds in medicine, science, and philosphy.