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107 Cards in this Set

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What makes all living things similar?
same atoms and molecules; metabolize; composed of cells; reproduce and change Mutations
Polymer
Larger molecules put together; also called macromolecules
What are the most important functional molecules in life and the most diverse?
Proteins
Amino Acid
Monomer of the polypeptide chain; has an amino group, a carboxly group, a hydgrogen atom, and one more atom called the R group.
Polypeptide Chain
Series of AMINO ACIDS linked by PEPTIDE BONDS
Enzyme
A type of protein or RNA that SPEEDS UP (catalyzes) a specific reaction, and is also UNCHANGED by the reaction
Hemoglobin
A protein, produced by red blood cells, that FUNCTIONS IN OXYGEN TRANSPORT to where oxygen levels are low
Ribosomes
In all cells, a structure that TRANSLATES GENETIC INFORMATION in mRNAs INTO PROTEINS; located outside of the rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
How many structures does a protein have?
4: Primary; Secondary; Tertiary; Quarternary
Primary structure of a protein
A sequence of amino acids covalently bonded as a peptide chain; N-C-C-N-C-C-N
Secondary structure of a protein
Local regions of a polypeptide chain become twisted and folded into helical coils, sheetlike arrays, and loops from HYDROGEN BONDING
Teritary structure of a protein
Third level of organization; A polypeptide chain becomes a functional unit; they all bunch up and form a DOMAIN
Quarternary structure of a protein
Fourth level of organization; two or more peptide chains come together and bunch up even more
Methionine
First Amino Acid EVERY TIME in the chain; AUG
What makes a PEPTIDE BOND?
CONDENSATION REACTION (H2O in between) links amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next
Dipeptide
Two linked amino acids
Polypeptide
Three or more linked amino acids
What causes the polypeptide chain to twist?
Hydrogen Bonding
Protein Syntheisis
Process of cells building proteins
Hemoglobin
Oxygen transporter
HbS
Sickle Hemoglobin; molecules stick together when oxygen level is low; clumps cell and slows bloodflow
What causes Sickle Hemoglobin?
One substitution in the Globin chain; usually VALINE replaces GLUTAMINE in the SIXTH postion on the chain
Denaturation
When polypeptide chains unwind and change shape; usually caused by disruptions with heat, etc...
R Groups
the molecular additions that make each amino acid different from the others
What does an enzyme do?
promotes chemical reactions internal and external to the cell
Keratin
Protein located in the outer layer of the epidermis that contributes to skin, fur, nails, horns, etc..
Nucleotide
Organic compoud with a five carbon sugar, nitrogen base, and a phosphate; they CARRY ENERGY, HELP ENZYMES, AND SEND MESSENGES!
Substrate
Name of molecule before the enzyme affects it
Product
Name of molecure after the enzyme affects it
What term has examples that end in -ase
Enzymes
If two or more enzymes act on a molecule, what becomes the substrate?
The last effected stage of the molecule, not the first
Metabolic Pathway
Process of a molecule being mutated from the substrate to the product
If the metabolic pathway goes A-B-C-D-E, what are B-C-D?
Intermediates
What happens when an intermediate gets interferred with?
Last completed product results
What puts the amino acids in the proper order to make the proteins?
DNA
What repeating subunits of
smaller molecules link to create DNA?
Nucleotides
What does a virus insert into bacteria?
DNA ONLY!
Bacteriophages
Viruses that infect bacteria
Eukarytotic Cell
Type of cell that starts life with a nucleus and other oraganelles
Prokaryotic Cell
Single-celled organism, often walled, witout a nucleus or aother organelles, usually BACTERIA
What is a nucleotide composed of?
Phosphate molecule (CHNOPS); a sugar (deoxyribose); a base
Helicase enzyme
unwinds the double-stranded helix
DNA polymerase enzyme
adds nucleotides (monomer after monomer)
Ligase enzyme
fills in gaps
Is a nucleotide a
polymer?
No, it’s
not a repeating chain of molecules
What gives the four bases found in DNA their name and their uniqueness?
The ring structure on the bases
A gets matched with..
T
G gets matched with...
C
T gets matched with...
A
C gets matched with..
G
DNA polymerase
The enzyme responsible for stringing the DNA nucleotides together P—S—P; A-T, G-C
Helicase
The enzyme responsible for unwinding the double-stranded helix
Ligase
The enzyme responsible for filling in the gaps of DNA
Thymine Dimers
Mutations on DNA introduced by ultra-voilet light
Mutagen
Any chemical or physical factor
that can change the sequence
of DNA; all associated with cancer
Where is DNA located?
Nucleus
Uracil
Connects to A in RNA
Replication is a process done by what nucleic acid?
DNA
Transcription is a process done by what nucleic acid?
RNA
What two reasons cause DNA to unwind?
Replication and Protein Synthesis
RNA polymerase
Enzyme that causes DNA to unwind, open and add RNA nucleotides to the RNA molecule
mRNA
Messneger Ribonucleotides; Carries protein-building instruction
tRNA
Transfer Ribonucleotides; Delivers amino acids to ribosomes
Transcript
RNA copies of DNA
How is RNA Transcription different than DNA Replication?
Only one product in RNA replication
Promoter
A nucleoteide base sequence in the DNA that signals the START OF A GENE; For transcription to occur, RNA polymerase must FIRST bind to a promoter; Usually a lot of A's and T's
Anticodon
Series of three nucleotide bases in a tRNA that can base-pair with mRNA codons
Codon
Linear sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA; codes for an amino acid or a termination signal in protein synthesis
Negative control
Regulatory proteins slow down or limit gene activity
Positive control
Regulatory proteins promote or enhance gene activity
Stop Codon
Stops the amino acid chain from continuing
Insertion
Extra base added into gene region; shifts the reading frame; Result in altered amino acid sequence
Deletion
Base removed from gene region; shifts the reading frame; Result in altered amino acid sequence
Gene
Section of DNA that encodes one structural or functional component of an organism
What can increase a mutation rate?
Natural and synthetic chemicals, and radiation
Mutagens found in x-rays
Ionizing
Mutagens found in UV rays
Nonionizing
How many molecules are in Hemoglobin?
4: Two alpha chains on top "quadrants," and two beta chains on bottom
Heme
Iron-containing, oxygen-transporting group in Hemoglobin that HOLDS THE OXYGEN
ATP
Nucleotide that transfers its phosphate groups to other molecules inside cells
Coenzyme
Enzyme helpers; Move electrons and hydrogen from one reaction site to another
Nucleid Acid
Stores and retrieves heritable information in all cells; joins sugar to phosphate
DNA Replication
How the molecule is duplicated before a cell divides
What amino acid gets replaced to form sickle cell anemia? Where is it located?
Valine replaces Glutamine on the sixth position
2 Examples of structural proteins outside of the cell
Flagella, Pili
What are the two steps of transforming a gene into a protein?
Transcription and Translation
What part of the nucleotide determines its name?
The Base
Transcription
DNA transcribes to RNA
Translation
RNA's genetic info is translated into a new polypeptide chain
Why does DNA replicate?
Because cells divide or replicate
Introns
Nucleotides that are removed from the pre-RNA molecule during transcription
Exons
Nuclueotides that remain in the RNA during transcription
Initiation
First step of translation; Ribosome, mRNA, and tRNA form a cluster
Elongation
Second step of translation; polypeptide chain is assembled as mRNA moves between 2 ribosomal subunits; tRNAs bring amino acids to the ribosome; tRNA and mRNA bond by codons
Termination
Ribosome reaches mRNAs stop codon
Base-pair substitutions
Gene mutation where a base is copied incorrectly during DNA replication
Frameshift mutations
Insertion or deletion of nucleotides; shift the reading frame; alters amino acid sequence
Are most genes turned off?
YES!
Operator
Binding sites for a repressor
Repressor
typre of regulatory protein that can prevent transcription
lac operon
Pormoter, operators, and genes all together
Homeotic Genes
Master genes that guide development of body parts; Switch on different genes in different parts of body
Restriction Enzymes
Enzyme that cuts up DNA
Plasmid
a small circle of bacterial DNA
Uses for DNA Sequencing
Evolutionary trends; Potential therapies for genetic diseases; Data bases using computer technology
DNA Fingerprints
Unique array of DNA fragments when chromosome are digested with restriction enzymes
Cloning
Making a genetically identical copy of an individual