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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
speciation and the phases of speciation and what is needed to start the process
When two species gradually arise from one Species are groups of reproductively isolated organisms

Geographic isolation

Reproductive isolation - – Develop different characteristics due to random mutations and/or selection operating on isolated populations in different ways
mechanisms of reproductive isolation and at what stage they operate, and be able to recognize examples of each
Premating isolating mechanisms
–Prevent individuals from mating

•Temporal –Populations isolated by breeding at different times
•Habitat –Different habitats
•Behavioral –Species-specific courtship rituals
•Gametic barrier-Incompatibility of eggs and sperm
-Mechanical -Incompatibliity of male and female genitalia
what adaptive radiation is and how it differs from convergent evolution
Adaptive Radiation - Rapid evolution of a single or a few species to fill many adaptive niches (ex. darwins finches)

Convergent Evolution - When organisms that aren't closely related evolve similar traits
what is adaptation and what is a niche
Adaption is the ability to change to adapt to a need

A niche is is a need of an individual
Know the usual type of evolution
The slow change over time generated by genetic mutation
Know the different major types of fossils and how they form
Fossils: preserved remnants or impressions left by organisms of past ages

Organic material decays and is filled by sediment to form fossils

Trace fossils - foot prints
Know the conditions on early earth that facilitated the evolution of life and what the probable steps were in order
conditions of early earth:

-very little oxygen then to attack complex molecules
-lightning, volcanoes, UV more intense than today

stages: synthesis of small organic molecules, joining of molecules, origin of self-replicating molecules, packaging of molecules into cells
Know what is meant by the oxygen revolution
2.7 bya photosynthesis started to produce more oxygen, species evolved to use oxygen
Know what eukaryotes are and when they first evolved, and how they formed symbioses with prokaryotes
Eukaryotic cells – (have nucleus)
Know when eukaryotes first became multicellular
(about 1 billion years ago; not in lecture notes)
Know what is meant by the Cambrian explosion and what is its significance
2nd radiation of eukaryotes produced most major animal groups in early Cambrian (coral and sponges)
Know the major milestones in the colonization of land by plants and animals, and when they took place
500 mya, started to move to land, animals started eating plants
Know how the colonization and diversification of land by plants made it possible for animals to do so as well
animals could use the enegery created by plants to feed themselves
Know the outline of terrestrial vertebrate evolution as given
fish were first with vertebrate
Know the factors affecting earth’s patterns of biodiversity and extinction
Continental Drift, Climate change, rapid climate change caused by natural catastrophes
Know what factors are likely to lead to extinction
Habitat destruction

environmental changes in unfavorable direction

evolutionary changes by other species in community may impact it negatively
Know what factors led to the Permian extinction, what groups it affected, and how important it was
extinction (250 mya)
–90% of marine species went extinct
–75% of terrestrial species
–Causes may include:
•disturbance to habitats due to the formation of Pangaea
•massive volcanic eruptions in Siberia
–warming of global climate
•changes in ocean circulation
Know what groups flourished after the Permian extinction
Cretaceous - marine species
Know what factors led to the Cretaceous extinction, what groups it affected, and how important it was
Cooling climate

Draining of shallow seas

Large volcanic eruptions in India
Know what is meant by the Linnaean system, binomials, and how they should be written
Linnaean system - way to name organisms

Binomials - Italics lowercased
Know the major taxonomic categories, their correct order and how they should be written
Family, order, class, phylum, kindom and domain
Know what is meant by the tree of life, and how organisms are mapped on trees of relationships
Map characters
Know what is meant by abiotic vs biotic factors and what they are
Abiotic: nonliving
Water, Air, Nutrients

Biotic: Living
plants, animals, fungi
Know what is meant by an organism’s range of tolerance, and its three categories
range of conditions in which a population of organisms can survive

Optimum: best survival and abundance

Physiological Stress: only a few individuals of the population can survive

Intolerance: no organisms of population can survive
Know what is meant by producers and consumers, and their synonyms, and know which groups fall in which category
Producers: (autotrophs) make food from compounds in their environment

Consumers: (heterotrophs) depend on food made by others
Know the factors that sustain life on earth
One way flow of sun energy

Cycling of matter or nutrients

Gravity allows for cycles
Know what the sun’s role is in sustaining life on earth
supplies energy for photosynthesis

Lights and warms planet

Drives climate and weather
Know what the sun is composed of and what kind of energy it provides
Hydrogen and Helium (h2 and he)

Inner core causes nuclear fusion
(electromagnetic radiation)
Know what percentage of the sun’s energy reaches earth and how much is used in photosynthesis
1/billionth of suns energy reaches earth and .023% is used for photosynthesis
Know what chemosynthesis is, what organisms do it, and where
Some Archaea convert simple chemical compounds into complex compounds without sunlight
Know what is meant by extremophiles and what are some of the conditions they live in
Organisms that can live where life impossible for almost all others

hot springs, acid springs
Know what organisms are producers, consumers, omnivores, and scavengers
Producers: land plants, algae

Consumers: (get energy from others) (herbivores, carnivores, tertairy)

Omnivores: (feed on plant and animal)

Scavengers: (consume on already dead organisms)
Know what is meant by cellular respiration, aerobic respiration, and anaerobic respiration
Cellular respiration (energy metabolism)

Aerobic Respiration: (use oxygen)

Anaerobic Respiration: (without oxygen) decomposers
Know the basic reaction (in words and chemical formula) for aerobic respiration, and how it relates to photosynthesis
Glucose + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy
Know what is meant by a food chain and a food web
A chain shows how nutrients are transferred from one organism to another

A web is a composite of many chains that show the cycles of energy
Know what is meant by the different trophic levels, what is meant by ecological efficiency, and why this is significant
trophic level contains a certain amount of biomass (dry weight of organic matter)

Eco efficienty: percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to another
Know what is meant by GPP and NPP
Gross primary productivity - rate at which producers use photosynthesis to make biomass

Net primary productivity - • Amount of biomass available as food to consumers in ecosystem (after producers use their share for survival, growth, reproduction)
Know which ecosystems are most productive and which are least productive, and why we can’t use all the most productive ecosystems
Most producers inedible or not favored

We would destroy most other life
Know what is meant by matter, biogeochemical, or nutrient cycles, and know which are the main ones.
Biogeochemical (nutrient) cycles: Continuous cycling of nutrients from non-living environment through living organisms and back

MAIN CYCLES: water, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
For the carbon cycle, know what happens when CO2 is added or removed from the atmosphere.
during photosynthesis and respiration
Know which organisms remove CO2 and which ones return it to air
Remove - plants/consumers

return - aerobic respiration
Know how fossil fuels form and are released, and why it’s not renewable
•Buried deposits of dead plant matter and bacteria

•Eventually (over millions of years) become fossil fuels like coal, oil
Know how nitrogen is fixed and by which organisms
–Bacterial action-nitrogen fixation/denitrification
-Excess N2 may undergo nitrification
Ammonia to nitrite: toxic to plants

Nitrite to nitrate: plant nutrient
Know the basics of the sulfur and phosphorus cycles
•Both essential nutrients

Taken up by plants from soil
Phosphorus has no significant atmospheric component
Know the difference between primary and secondary succession, and be able to recognize examples of each type
1. Primary succession:
Establishment of biotic community on lifeless ground

2. Secondary succession:
Establishment of biotic community on where life already is present
Know the stages of primary succession
•Pioneer species start soil formation: roots break up rocks, decay plants build up soil,
evaporation exceeds precipitaion
hot day/cold night

minimal vegitation
Semiarid zones bet. desert and grassland

shrubs and thorn trees
Rainfall for grass growth
-interior of continents
Polar Grasslands (Artic Tundra)
south of polar ice cap
cold, long winter, short going season
Tundra Permafrost
Extreme cold, short summers
-water can percolate into lower layers
Tropical Rainforests
near equator, hot, lots of precipitation