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16 Cards in this Set

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Realism
Who: Snow, Morganthau, Waltz
What: 1) Anarchy
There is no government above the nations
The UN, the EU, etc… are all voluntary organizations
We live in an anarchical systematic level
2) No universal laws
Morganthau is the first one to categorize this
No laws, but nation states
3) Nation states are the primary unit of realism
4) Self help system
Basic common denominator is sovereignty
Survival
5) Nations want to maximize their power
Power: the ability to make another nation do what they don't want to do, or the power to change behavior
Nations get power from natural resources, location, etc…
You want to lessen your dependency on other nations
6) Preferences
Do a cost/benefit analysis on how they will order their vital elements
Why: It is the first dominant theory to explain the behavior of nation states, and all theories come from this
Example: North Korea Missle Testing
Trying to gain Nuclear Mystique
With this power comes a stronger bargaining system
Levels of Analysis
Singer
-Systematic Level
-Global
-Intermestic/Domestic/Societal Level
-Countries
-Intergovernmental Organization Level
-Individual Level
-Presidents, bricklayers, lawyers, etc…
Citizen Soldier
Who:
What: The United States people are skeptical of long-standing armies, so we use 'citizen soliers' like the National Guard and Army Reserves in times of crisis
They believe in mobilizing and emobilizing quickly, and the citizen soldier helps to solve this
You want a Commander in Chief who is a citizen too
Tectonic Shifts
Who: Snow
What: Fall of the USSR
September 11th
Where: Everywhere
When: 1989 and 2001
Why:
Bureaucratic Politics Model
1) The maker of government policy is not on calculating decision maker, but is rather a conglomerate of large organizations and political actors
2) Government behavior is the result of bargaining games undertaken by political actors
3) The players' preferences and perceptions on a particular issue correlate lightly with their bureaucratic process positions
"Where you stand depends on where you sit"
4) A bargaining situation in which players "pull and haul for their positions"
5) Power is the elusive blend of bargaining advantage, skill, mad the will to use that bargaining advantage
Why is this significant?
"Send arms, not troops"
Snow This was instituted by the Nixon administration, it's the idea that Americans hate being in long term bloody wars
This has backfired against us in several situations: Iraq, Afganistan, and Iran
1) Where America's most vital interests exist, there are essentially no threats
2) Where there are threats, there are hardly any important American vital interests at stake
Gaurdians of Liberty
Who:
This is the idea that Americans view themselves as the protectors of:
1) Political sanctuary
2) Liberty
3) Equality
4) Democracy
5) Upholding the Constitution
It is also the American ideal that we need to promote freedom throughout the world
Why: This helps to explain why Americans feel the need to be so engaged in the spread of democracy
Example: The Bush Doctrine
Coercive Diplomacy
Who: Art
What: It is the attempt to get a target- a state, group within the state, or a non-state actor to change its objectionable behavior through either the threat of force or through actual use of limited force
Why: Coercive diplomacy allows countries a solution in order to avoid war
Why is it difficult?
1) Estimating resolve is difficult
2) Credibility and power are at stake
3) Multiple coercers and multiple targets complicate coercive diplomacy
4) A belief in counter-coercion techniques can foil coercive diplomacy
Example: President Clinton in Haiti
Attempted to use coercive diplomacy in order to force regime change
Compellence
Who: Art
What: An action intended to make an adversary do something
It is difficult, it is more difficult than deterrence
It can come in three forms:
1) Diplomatically- the issuance of threats to use force against an adversary if their behavior does not change
2) Demonstratively- the exemplary and limited use of force
3) Full scale use of war- the use of whatever is needed to make the adversary change their behavior
Why: It is important because it helps us understand coercive diplomacy, and also helps explain the power one state has over another
Example: The United States is succussful at deterrance, not compliance
This is why we can convince Iran and North Korea not to blow up their neigbors, but can't get them to cancel their nuclear testing
Asymmetrical Warfare
Who: Snow
What: It is the ancient military philosophy that a group changes the rules in order to negate the disadvantages
Why: Helps to explain how small countries can fend off much larger military hegemony for long periods of time
Example: Currently in Iraq, Afghanistan in the 1980's, Vietnam
Deterrence
Who: Art
What: An action intended to keep a group from starting something
Deterrence is easier than compellence
As compliance aims to deter a party's behavior, deterrence strives to keep it the same
It usually only involves threats of force, whereas compellence can involve actual use of force
Example: The United States is succussful at deterrance, not compliance
This is why we can convince Iran and North Korea not to blow up their neigbors, but can't get them to cancel their nuclear testing
The Bush Doctrine
Who: Jervis
What: 1) Strong measures are needed to protect democracy
2) We live in a time, not only of great opportunity, but of great threat, but it is plagued terrorism and nations of concern
3) Unless all challenges are deterred by the exercise of the Doctrine in Iraq of preventative strike, this type of authority will be repeated as other nations reach a similar threshold (disenfranchisement from the international community)
4) Unilateralism
5) American hegemony can only be maintained if the leading power believes differently from other nations
Example: Bush in Iraq
International Regimes
Who:
What: International regimes are the framework of rules, norms, principles, and procedures for negotioation, and are not quasi-governmemts
They have four qualities:
1) Multiple elements for connecting societies
2) Absence of heirarchy amongst issues blurrs the line between what is a domestic issue and what is a transnational/global issue
3) When complex interdependence prevails, military force is not used toward other nations within a region
4) Goals will vary by issue, not all goals will be met with military force
The Cold War Era
1) The Cold War was a pervasive political and military competition.
2) The International System was bipolar in nature
3) The Cold War was viewed as a protected- no peaceful outcome was possible
4) The Cold War system became global- led by alliance structure to contain communism
The Post Cold War Era
1) Splitting up blocks of nations has resulted in a loss of political control, i.e. civil war
2) There has been a relaxation of the alliance structure
3) A weakening of the nation state
4) A spread of WMDs
5) Advent of the electronic battlefield
6) Changing notion sovereignty
7) Force should be the last resort
The Bush Doctrine
1) Strong measures needed to protect democracy
2) Unilateralism
3) Things are good now, but nations of concern and terrorist organizations lurk
4) Unless all challengers are deferred by the exercise of the Doctrine of Iraq of preventative strike, this type of authority will be repeated as other nations reach a similar threshold
5) American hegemony can only be maintained if the leading power believes differently from the other nations