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19 Cards in this Set

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REALISM- CENTRAL FOCUS-
(1) The state is the most important actor in international relations. Since the Treaty of Westaphalia (1648), international relations have been based on political units called states.
Realists are quick to point out that while sovereignty and autonomy may be considered
REALISM- NATURE OF IOS
Realism and the nature of IGOs: Realists argue that no hierarchy of authority exists in international relations. The international system is characterized by anarchy, where authority resides with each individual state. Anarchy doesn’t mean chaos. The international system, is, in fact, quite orderly because a power hierarchy does exist among states.
Realism and the Role of IGOs:
Realism and the Role of IGOs: International organizations play one or two role in the realist world. One role is marginal one. IOs matter only at the fringes of world politics. They must foster cooperation in noncontroversial issue areas where states have common interest. However, they rarely constrain state behavior in issues where interests are diverse and opposed. In other words, IOs play little or no role in maintaining international peace and security. IOs are used by the hegemon and great powers to further their interests in the international system.
Criticisms of the Realism:
Criticisms of the Realism:
(1) Conceptual imprecision: Realism is based on the concept of power. After all, realism is power politics. But what is power? Very little consensus exists regarding a precise definition of power. Some see power as tangible, concrete military capabilities. Power is measured by the number of tanks, planes, and nuclear weapons a state has. Others see power as including potential. Japan and Germany are considered powerful, even though they do possess any significant military capability. Their economic and technological prowess indicates that they could put forth a formidable military.
(2) National interest: States seeking power in the international system to secure their national interests. States create IOs to further their national interests. States make political calculations based on their national interests.
LIBERALISM: CENTRAL FOCUS
LIBERALISM: It challenges the pessimistic world view of realism by painting a more encouraging picture of the relations between societies. Liberals see international relations as a mixture of cooperation and conflict and argue that IOs can play a positive, constructive role in promoting international stability and global welfare.
Liberals believe the importance of military force in international relations as waned.
The spread of democracy has instilled values of compromise and the rule of law in governments
Liberalism and the Nature of IOs:
Liberalism and the Nature of IOs: Liberal theory emphasizes several kinds of IOs like the IGO, the NGO, the MNC, and the regime. Functionalism and Institutionalism are 2 prominent liberal explanations regarding IGO and regime creation.
Functionalist: Believes in the efficacy of a gradualist approach to world order with the attainment of political federation by installments. IGOs are created because of a basic need for them.
Functionalists: recognize that state sovereignty is a well-entrenched principle in international relations. IGOs socialize elites into recognizing that it is in their states’ interest to join and participate in international organizations
Liberalism and the Role of IOs:
liberalism is more optimistic than realism about the contributions and the independence of IOs in international relations.
(1) IOs help states overcome collective action problems- issues in the economy and environment.
Liberalism and Its Critics
Liberalism and Its Critics
(1) Ethnocentric: Liberals do not consider relative gains and they don’t believe that “development” is itself an ethnocentric.
(2) Blame for underdevelopment and poverty is often placed on the individual, firm, or government.
(3) It assumes all interests are able to compete effectively in the political arena.
(4) Its reliance on the market and economic considerations. Liberals argue that economics should determine politics.
MARXISM- FOCUS
MARXISM: It challenges the realist assertion of the primacy of politics over economics and the liberal assertion that the expansion of global market is beneficial to international peace and stability. It offers a comprehensive critique of capitalism as a mode of production that leads to conflict and competition.
Marxism has articulated significantly different roles for current IOs
For Marxists, IOs are neither great power directorates nor relatively independent actors promoting the international public good; rather they are tools of capitalism that undermine and exploit subordinate classes and states.
Marxism and the Nature of IOs:
Marxism and the Nature of IOs: Marxist argues that IOs are created through hegemony. Traditional Marxists tend to equate hegemony with military and economic dominance. They think IOs are created, and then imposed on the rest of the world. IOs are mechanisms of capitalist domination and exploitation. They also believe that the root of U.S hegemony was its ability to impose its capitalist vision.
Marxism and the Role of IOs:
Marxism and the Role of IOs: UN are political components to capitalism because they are financed and controlled by the capitalist states, they promote a capitalist agenda. The political institutions of the UN, such as the Security Council and General Assembly are hobbled by procedural rules that make them ineffective as
CRITICS OF MARXISM -
MARXIST TEND TO RELY ON ECONOMIC FACTORS TO EXPLAIN POLITCAL BEHAVIOR
2ND MARXIS ANALYSES TEND TO BE DETERMINISTIC
THE STRANDS CONTEMP FEMINISM
TRADTIONAL
NEOFEMINISM
POSTMODERN FEMINISM
GRAM AND MARXIS
WHAT IS THE POSTION OF WEAK STATES TO RULE
ONLYWEAK STATES RELY ON FORCE OR DOMINATION TO RULE STRONG STATES RULE THROUGH HEGEMONY
3 ROLES OF NGO
INFORMATION RELATED ACTIVITIES
2ND ROLE OF NGOS IN WORLD POLITICS INVOLVES CARRYING OUT THE POLICIES OF STATES AND IGO'S
3RD PRIVATE INTERACTIONS - VARIETY OF PRIVATE INTERNTIONAL TRANSACTIONS THAT BRING TOGETHER GROUPS AND INDIVIDUAL
5 FUNCTIONS OF GENERAL ASSEMBLY
(1) The General Assembly may deliberate and consider any issue or questions that may rise under the charter (Chapter IV).
(2) It is responsible for initiating studies and making recommendations for promoting political cooperation and the progressive development of international law.
(3) It is responsible for promoting international cooperation in the economic, social, cultural, education, and health care fields.
(4) It is charged with drafting and approving the UN budget.
(5) It oversees the UN bureaucracy.
The Economic And Social Council:
The ECOSOC was established under the UN Charter (Chapter X) to promote economic and social cooperation among member states. It attends to issues of economic development, human rights, and social welfare.
(1) The ECOSOC initiates studies and reports with respect to international economic, social, cultural, educational, and health.
(2) The ECOSOC may make recommendations for promoting and protecting human rights.
(3) The ECOSOC may prepare draft conventions relating to economic and social issues.
The Trustee Council:
It was created to oversee the transition of colonies into self-governing territories.
The Secretariat:
It serves as the UN bureaucracy. The Secretary-General is the chief diplomat, whose task is to represent the UN to member states