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20 Cards in this Set

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Migration
Movement of an individual or group from one place to another, often in pursuit of political or religious freedom, economic opportunity, reunification with family, or access to specific resources.
Divestment strategies
Is commonly the consequence of a "growth strategy", whereby a product line or a product division of a business is eliminated or sold to limit either anticipated or real losses, and to redirect the resources behind that product line or division to other company products or divisions that may provide a better profit. In other words, a portion of the business is eliminated because it is seen as not providing any gains.
Refugees
A displaced person who cannot return to his or her country of origin because of fear of persecution or destruction caused by war or natural disaster. They are often assisted and relocated by an international body such as the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees.
Branch factory syndrome
This explains that critical technologies and the most productive assets remain securely at headquarters, while inferior technologies and less productive assets are transferred abroad to branch factory. Corporate headquarters fear that their competitive assets will be appropriated or diluted; they therefore, tend to keep control of them at home and be sure that strategic decisions are made by home country not the host country executive. pg 370
Relational power
The ability of one actor to get another to do or not do something. In other words, the ability to control the minds and actions of other.
Epistemic Community
A network of experts on a particular international problem, who try to frame the issue for policymakers and the public, and offers solutions.
Appropriability theory
Developed by Richard Caves and others, explains why Vernon’s product cycle firms invest abroad rather than licensing production to a local firm or taking on a local partner. The theory argues that some firms become TNCs in order to protect themselves and have monopoly over the market (do not want to lose competitive edge) and of their authentic assets such as trademarks, which is believed will be loss through partnership with local or license foreign firms.
Kyoto protocol
Environmental rules that derive from the 1997 Kyoto, Japan, summit on global warming.
demographic transition
the point at which population growth decreases as per capita income levels rise.
Commercialization of sovereignty
The process of one state renting out commercial privileges and protections to citizens and companies from another state. In this way, one state’s sovereign privilege is used to undermine the sovereign power of another state to regulate their citizens and companies’ behaviors.
Genetically modified organisims
A living organism that has had its genetic code altered for commercial or scientific gain. For example, a crop might be genetically modified to enhance desirable nutritional qualities.
Informal economy
The part of the economy that is unregulated and usually does not pay taxes. In a less developed country, most street vendors, for example, would be classified as “informal.”
remittance
Payments made by a migrant to family or friends in the country of origin.
asylum
Refuge for a displaced person who cannot return to his or her country of origin because of fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
immigration
Movement into another country with the intention of becoming a permanent resident in the destination country.
commodification
The process whereby an item is transformed into a commodity (goods for trade/or to be sold) to be bought and sold. In the context of tourism, commodification refers to the transformation of cultural objects and values into commodities in response to tourists’ preferences and demands.
Food first thesis
A thesis introduced in the 1970s to counter the view that overpopulation is the underlying cause of world hunger. It argues that hunger is actually caused by deficiencies in income and land distribution, rather than of food production and distribution. According to the proponents of this theory, hunger is not endemic to less developed countries, but is a byproduct of their political and economic relationship to the industrialized nations.
diaspora
Transnational communities that identify with a common homeland, history, and ethnic identity despite their citizenship in other countries.
emission credits
An implementation mechanism for the Kyoto protocol, which allows countries to buy and sell carbon dioxide production quotas from one another.
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
A permanent conference of the UN-General Assembly that focuses on the effects of international trade on nations at differing stages of development and with differing social and economic systems.