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231 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Industrial-Organizational (IO) Psychology
the application of psychological principles, theory, and research to the work setting
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP)
an association to which many IO psychologists belong; designated as Division 14 of the American Psychological Association (APA)
personnel psychology
field of psychology that addresses issues such as recruitment, selection, training, performance appraisal, promotion, transfer, and termination
Human Resources Management (HRM)
practices such as recruiting, selection, retention, training and development of people (human resources) in order to achieve individual and organizational goals
organizational psychology
field of psychology that combines research from social psychology and organizational behavior and addresses the emotional and motivational side of work
human engineering (or human factors psychology)
study of the capacities and limitations of humans with respect to a particular environment
American Psychological Association (APA)
the major professional organization for psychologists in the United States
TIP (The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist)
quarterly newsletter published by SIOP; provides the latest relevant information about the field
Stanford-Binet test
a well-known intelligence test designed for testing one individual at a time; originally developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in 1905, the Binet-Simon test was updated starting in 1916 by Lewis Terman and colleagues at Stanford University, which determined the test's current name
Scientific Management
a movement based on principles developed by Frederick W. Taylor; suggests there is one best and most efficient way to perform various jobs
time and motion studies
studies that broke every action down into its constituent parts, timed those movements with a stopwatch, and developed new and more efficient movements that would reduce fatigue and increase productivity
revery obsession
Australian psychologist Elton Mayo proposed that this mental state resulted from the mind-numbing, repetitive, and difficult work characterizing US factories in the early 20th century, causing factory workers to be unhappy, prone to resist management attempts to increase productivity, and sympathetic to labor unions
Hawthorne studies
research done at the Hawthorne, IL plant of Western Electric that began as attempts to increase productivity by manipulating lighting, rest breaks, and work hours; research showed the important role workers' attitudes played in productivity; found that when conditions were made worse, production improved, and vice versa because the fact that someone was finally paying attention to the workers seemed to have affected behavior
Human Relations Movement
the results of the Hawthorne studies ushered in this movement, which focused on work attitudes and the newly discovered emotional world of the worker
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII
federal legislation that prohibits employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, which define protected groups; prohibits not only intentional discrimination, but also practices that have the unintentional effect of discriminating against individuals because of race, color, national origin, religion, or sex
welfare-to-work program
program that requires individuals to work in return for government subsidies
arrangement that allows employees to do their work from home or other locations
virtual team
team that has widely dispersed members working together toward a common goal and linked through computers and other technology
a system in which individuals share meanings and common ways of viewing events and objects
managers or professionals assigned to work in a location outside their home country
"West versus the Rest" mentality
tendency for researchers to develop theories relevant to US situations, with less concern given to their applicability in other countries
collectivist culture
a culture that values the group more than the individual
individualist culture
a culture that values the individual more than the group
the degree to which individuals are expected to look after themselves versus remaining integrated into groups
power distance
the degree to which less powerful members of an organization accept and expect an unequal distribution of power
uncertainty avoidance
the extent to which members of a culture feel comfortable in unpredictable situations
the distribution of emotional roles between genders with the masculine role seen as "tough" and the feminine role seen as "tender"
long-term versus short-term orientation
the extent to which members of a culture expect immediate rather than delayed gratification of their material, social, and emotional needs
horizontal culture
a culture that minimizes distances between individuals
vertical culture
a culture that accepts and depends upon distances between individuals
individual differences
dissimilarities between or among two or more people
mental test
instrument designed to measure a subject's ability to reason, plan, and solve problems; an intelligence test
differential psychology
scientific study of differences between or among two or more people
the ability to learn and adapt to a new environment; often used to refer to general intellectual capacity, as opposed to cognitive ability or mental ability, which often refer to more specific abilities such as memory or reasoning
mental ability
capacity to reason, plan, and solve problems; cognitive ability
standard of measurement; a scale
practice of measuring a characteristic such as mental ability, placing it on a scale or metric
intelligence test
instrument designed to measure the ability to reason, learn, and solve problems
psychologist trained in measuring characteristics such as mental ability
cognitive ability
capacity to reason, plan, and solve problems; mental ability
abbreviation for general mental ability
general mental ability
the nonspecific capacity to reason, learn, and solve problems in any of a wide variety of ways and circumstances
g-ocentric model
tendency to understand and predict the behavior of workers simply by examining "g"
physical abilities
bodily powers such as muscular strength, flexibility, and stamina
an individual's behavioral and emotional characteristics, generally found to be stable over time and in a variety of circumstances; an individual's habitual way of responding
preferences or likings for broad ranges of activities
a collection of specific and interrelated facts and information about a particular topical area
an affect or feeling, often experienced and displayed in reaction to an event or thought and accompanied by physiological changes in various systems of the body
an orderly, scientific system of classification
perceptual-motor abilities
physical attributes that combine the senses (e.g. hearing, seeing, smell) and motion (e.g. coordination, dexterity)
the conscious, subjective aspect of emotion
abbreviation for intelligence quotient
intelligence quotient
measure of intelligence obtained by giving a subject a standardized "IQ" test; the score is obtained by multiplying by 100 the ratio of the subject's mental age to chronological age
statistical method of combining many small studies to reach a conclusion
Flynn effect
phenomenon in which new generations appear to be smarter then their parents by a gain of 15 points in average intelligence test score per generation; named after the political scientist who did extensive research on the topic
the arithmetic mean or average, computed by dividing the sum of all values in a set by the number of values comprising that set
standard deviation
measure of the extent of spread in a set of scores
physical ability to supply muscles with oxygenated blood through the cardiovascular system; also known as cardiovascular strength or aerobic strength or endurance
muscular tension
physical quality of muscular strength
muscular power
physical ability to lift, pull, push, or otherwise move an object; unlike endurance, this is a one-time maximum effort
muscular endurance
physical ability to continue to use a single muscle or muscle group repeatedly over time
sensory abilities
physical functions of vision, hearing, touch, taste, smell, and kinesthetic feedback (e.g., noticing changes in body position)
Americans with Disabilities Act
federal in 1990 requiring employers to give applicants and employees with disabilities the same consideration as other applicants and employees, and to make certain adaptations in the work environment to accommodate disabilities
psychomotor abilities
physical functions of movement, associated with coordination, dexterity, and reaction time; also called motor or sensorimotor abilities
sensorimotor abilities
physical functions of movement, associated with coordination, dexterity, and reaction time; also called motor or psychomotor abilities
motor abilities
physical functions of movement, associated with coordination, dexterity, and reaction time; also called psychomotor or sensorimotor abilities
practiced acts, such as shooting a basketball, using a computer keyboard, or persuading someone to buy something
people skills
a nontechnical term that includes negotiating skills, communication skills, and conflict resolution skills
collection of electronic databases, based on well-developed taxonomies, that has updated and replaced the Dictionary of Occupational Titles
tactic knowledge
action-oriented, goal-directed knowledge, acquired without direct help from others; colloquially called "street smarts"
procedural knowledge
familiarity with a procedure or process; knowing "how"
declarative knowledge (DK)
familiarity with facts or abstract concepts, often acquired through direct instruction; knowing "that"
direct participation in, or observation of, events and activities that serves as a basis for knowledge
measurement modes
unit of measurement used to assess experience
level of specificity
method used to gauge experience according to task, job, and organizational characteristics
sets of behaviors, usually learned by experience, that are instrumental in the accomplishment of various activities
job analysis
method for determining the important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perform those tasks
emotional intelligence (EI)
a proposed kind of intelligence focused on our awareness of our own and others' emotions
a proposed variable capable of being examined through scientific methodology
scientist-practitioner model
a model that uses scientific tools and research in the practice of IO psychology
Big 5
a taxonomy of five personality factors; the Five Factor Model (FFM)
Five Factor Model (FFM)
a taxonomy of five personality factors, comprised of conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability, and openness to experience
quality of having positive intentions and carrying them out with care
functional personality at work
the way that an individual behaves, handles emotions, and accomplishes tasks in a work setting; a combination of Big Five factors
likable, easy to get along with, friendly
emotional stability
displaying little emotion; showing the same emotional response in various situations
quality of being honest, reliable, and ethical
a facet of conscientiousness consisting of hard work, persistence, and the desire to do good work
a facet of conscientiousness, consisting of being disciplined, well organized, respectful of laws and regulations, honest, trustworthy, and accepting of authority
positive valence
continuum of favorable personality characteristics running from normal to exceptional
negative valence
continuum of unfavorable personality characteristics running from normal to abominable
the belief in one's capability to perform a specific task or reach a specific goal
vocational interest
preference or liking for a particular activity or setting (as in a job or occupational setting)
acronym for Holland's model of vocational interests, which proposes six interest types of people: realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional
cognitive ability test
allows individuals to demonstrate what they know, perceive, remember, understand, or can work with mentally; includes problem identification, problem-solving tasks, perceptual skills, the development or evaluation of ideas, and remembering what one has learned through general experience or specific training
cognitive test battery
collection of tests that assess a variety of cognitive aptitudes of abilities; often called Multiple Aptitude Test Batteries
knowledge test
assesses the extent to which individuals understand course or training materials; also administered for licensing and certification purposes
psychomotor abilities
physical functions of movement, associated with coordination, dexterity, and reaction time; also called motor or sensorimotor abilities
screen out test
used to eliminate candidates who are clearly unsuitable for employment; tests of psychopathology are examples of screen out tests in the employment setting
screen in test
used to add information about the positive attributes of a candidate that might predict outstanding performance; tests of normal personality are examples of screen in tests in the employment setting
a person's public face or "game face"
overt integrity test
asks questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors such as employee theft
personality based integrity test
test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad constructs such as conscientiousness, reliability, and social responsibility and awareness
emotional intelligence (EI)
a proposed kind of intelligence focused on people's awareness of their own and others' emotions
emotional intelligence quotient (EQ)
parallels the notion of intelligence quotient (IQ); a score on a test of emotional intelligence
individual assessment
situation in which only one candidate (or a very few) is assessed on many different attributes
situational interview
asks the interviewee to describe in specific and behavioral detail how he or she would respond to a hypothetical situation
structured interview
consists of very specific questions asked of each candidate; includes tightly crafted scoring schemes with detailed outlines for the interviewer with respect to assigning ratings or scores based on interview performance
unstructured interview
includes questions that may vary by candidate and that allow the candidate to answer in any form he or she may prefer
assessment center
collection of procedures for evaluation that is administered to groups of individuals; assessments are typically done by multiple assessors
work sample test
assessment procedure that measures job skills by taking samples of behavior under realistic joblike conditions
situational judgment test (SIT)
commonly a paper and pencil test that presents the candidate with a written scenario and asks the candidate to choose the best response from a series of alternatives
incremental validity
the value in terms of increased validity of adding a particular predictor to an existing selection system
information collected on an application blank of in a standardized test that includes questions about previous jobs, education, specialized training, and personal history; also known as biographical data
ecology model
underlying model for life history biodata instruments; proposes that the events that make up a person's history represent choices made by the individual to interact with his or her environment; these choices can signal abilities, interests, and personality characteristics
social desirability
desire to be appealing to others
technique that presumes that traits can be assessed from various characteristics of a person's handwriting; also known as handwriting analysis
machine that measures a person's physiological reactions; approach assumes that when people are being dishonest, their physiological reactions will signal that they are being deceptive; often known as a "lie detector" test
computer adaptive testing (CAT)
presents the test taker with a few items that cover the range of difficulty of the test, identifies a test taker's approximate level of ability, and then asks only questions to further refine the test taker's position within that ability level
routing test
preliminary test used in computer adaptive testing that identifies a test taker's approximate level of ability before providing additional questions to refine the test taker's position within that ability level
actions or behaviors relevant to the organization's goals; measured in terms of each individual's proficiency
evaluation of the results of performance; often controlled by factors beyond the actions of an individual
ratio of effectiveness (output) to the cost of achieving that level of effectiveness (input)
determinants of performance
basic building blocks or causes of performance, which are declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and motivation
declarative knowledge (DK)
understanding what is required to perform a task; knowing information about a job or job task
procedural knowledge and skill (PKS)
knowing how to perform a job or task; often developed through practice and experience
motivation (M)
concerns the conditions responsible for variations in intensity, persistence, quality, and direction of ongoing behavior
performance components
may appear in different jobs and result from the determinants of performance; John Campbell and colleagues identified eight performance components, some or all of which can be found in every job
criterion deficiency
occurs when an actual criterion is missing information that is part of the behavior one is trying to measure
criterion contamination
occurs when an actual criterion includes information unrelated to the behavior one is trying to measure
ultimate criterion
ideal measure of all of the relevant aspects of job performance
actual criterion
actual measure of job performance obtained
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
behavior that goes beyond what is expected
helpful behaviors directed toward individuals or groups within the organization, such as offering to help a coworker who is up against a deadline
generalized compliance
behavior that is helpful to the broader organization, such as upholding company rules
contextual performance
performance that supports the organizational, social, and psychological environment in which the job tasks are performed; behaviors or activities that are not typically part of job descriptions
task performance
proficiency with which job incumbents perform activities that are formally recognized as a part of their job
objective performance measures
using a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output
judgmental measure
evaluation made of the effectiveness of an individual's work behavior; judgment most often made by supervisors in the context of a performance evaluation
personnel measure
measure typically kept in a personnel file including absences, accidents, tardiness, rate of advancement, disciplinary actions, and commendations of meritorious behavior
adaptive performance
performance component that includes flexibility and the ability to adapt to changing circumstances
expert performance
performance exhibited by those who have been practicing for at least ten years and have spent an average of four hours per day in deliberate practice
deliberate practice
individualized training on tasks selected by a qualified teacher
counterproductive work behavior (CWB)
voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of the organization, its members, or both
employee theft of goods and theft of time (arriving late, leaving early, taking unnecessary sick days) or dishonest communications with customers, co-workers, or management
type of counterproductive behavior that involves failure of an employee to report for or remain at work as scheduled
acts that damage, disrupt, or subvert the organization's operations for personal purposes of the saboteur by creating unfavorable publicity, damage to property, destruction of working relationships, or harming of employees or customers
Lordstown Syndrome
act of sabotage named after a General Motors plant plagued with with acts of sabotage
job analysis
process that determines the important tasks of a job and the human attributes necessary to successfully perform those tasks
job ladder or job family
cluster of positions that are similar in terms of the human attributes needed to be successful in those positions or in terms of the tasks that are carried out
job psychograph
early form used in a job analysis to display the mental requirements of the job
task-oriented job analysis
approach that begins with a statement of the actual tasks ass well as what is accomplished by those tasks
worker-oriented job analysis
approach that focuses on the attributes of the worker necessary to accomplish the tasks
individual attributes of knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that are required to successfully perform job tasks
subject matter expert (SME)
employee (incumbent) who provides information about a job in a job analysis interview or survey
criterion incident technique
approach in which subject matter experts are asked to identify critical aspects of behavior or performance in a particular job that led to success or failure
work diary
job analysis approach that requires workers and/or supervisors to keep a log of their activities over a prescribed period of time
objective performance measure
usually a quantitative count of the results of work such as sales volume, complaint letters, and output
judgmental performance measure
evaluation made of the effectiveness of an individual's work behavior, most often by supervisors in the context of a yearly performance evaluation
hands-on performance measurement
requires an employee to engage in work-related tasks; usually includes carefully constructed simulations of central or critical pieces of work that involve single workers
walk-through testing
requires an employee to describe to an interviewer in detail how to complete a task or job-related behavior; employee may literally walk through the facility (e.g. a nuclear power plant) answering questions as he or she actually sees the displays or controls in question
electronic performance monitoring
monitoring work process with electronic devices; can be very cost effective and has the potential for providing detailed and accurate work logs
performance management
system that emphasizes the link between individual behavior and organizational strategies and goals by defining performance in the context of those goals; jointly developed by managers and the people who report to them
distributive justice
perceived fairness of the allocation of outcomes or rewards to organizational members
procedural justice
perceived fairness of the process (or procedure) by which ratings are assigned or rewards are distributed
interpersonal justice
focuses on the respectfulness and personal tone of the communications surrounding the evaluation, particularly the feedback and performance planning that follows the evaluation
includes both the announced purpose and other, nonannounced agendas of the circumstances surrounding performance ratings
task performance
proficiency with which job incumbents perform activities that are formally recognized as a part of their job
contextual performance
performance that supports the organizational, social, and psychological environment in which the job tasks are performed; behaviors or activities that are not typically part of job descriptions
counterproductive performance
voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and in doing so, threatens the well-being of the organization, its members, or both; also called counterproductive employee behavior
groups of similar tasks; each duty involves a segment of work directed at one of the general goals of a job
critical incidents
examples of behavior that appear "critical" in determining whether performance would be good, average, or poor in specific performance areas
graphic rating scale
graphically displays performance scores that run from high on one end to low on the other end
list of behaviors presented to a rater who places a check next to each of the items that best (or least) describes the ratee
weighted checklist
includes items that have values or weights assigned to them that are derived from the expert judgments of incumbents and supervisors of the position in question
forced choice format
requires the rater to choose two statements out of four that could describe the ratee
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what a worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area
Behavioral Observation Scale (BOS)
asks the rater to consider how frequently an employee has been seen to act in a particular way
employee comparison methods
form of evaluation that involves the direct comparison of one person with another
simple ranking
employees are ranked from top to bottom according to their assessed proficiency on some dimension, duty area, or standard
paired comparison
technique in which each employee in a work group or a collection of individuals with the same job title is compared with each other individual in the group on the various dimensions being considered
360 degree feedback
process of collecting and providing an employee with feedback that comes from many sources including supervisors, peers, subordinates, customers, and suppliers
rating errors
inaccuracies in ratings that may be actual errors or intentional or systematic distortions
central tendency error
error in which raters choose a middle point on the scale to describe performance, even though a more extreme point might better describe the employee
leniency error
occurs with raters who are unusually easy in their ratings
severity error
occurs with raters who are unusually harsh in their ratings
halo error
occurs when a rater assigns the same rating to an employee on a series of dimensions, creating a halo or aura that surrounds all of the ratings, causing them to be similar
psychometric training
training that makes raters aware of common rating errors (central tendency, leniency/severity, and halo) in the hope that this will reduce the likelihood of errors
frame-of-reference (FOR) training
training based on the assumption that a rater needs a context or "frame" for providing a rating; includes (1) providing information on the multidimensional nature of performance, (2) ensuring that raters understand the meaning of anchors of the scale, (3)engaging in practice rating exercises, and (4) providing feedback on practice exercises
staffing decisions
associated with recruiting, selecting, promoting, and separating employees
high performance work practices
include the use of formal job analyses, selection from within for key positions, merit-based promotions, and the use of formal assessment devices for selection
power distance
the degree to which less powerful members of an organization accept and expect and unequal distribution of power
uncertainty avoidance
the extent to which members of a culture feel comfortable in unstructured situations
multinational staffing
procedures that involve staffing for organizations in more than one country
the accurateness of inferences made based on test or performance data; also addresses whether a measure accurately and completely represents what was intended to be measured
criterion-based validity
validity approach that is demonstrated by correlating a test score with a performance measure; improves researcher's confidence in the inference that people with higher test scores have higher performance
selection ratio (SR)
index ranging from 0 to 1 that reflects the ratio of positions to applicants; calculated by dividing the number of positions available by the number of applicants
false positive
decision in which an applicant was accepted but performed poorly; decision is false because of the incorrect prediction that the applicant would have performed successfully and positive because the applicant was hired
false negative
decision in which an applicant was rejected but would have performed adequately or successfully; decision is false because of the incorrect prediction that the applicant would not have performed successfully and negative because the applicant was not hired
true positive
decision in which an applicant was accepted and performed successfully; decision is true because of the correct prediction that the applicant would be a good performer and positive because the applicant was hired
true negative
decision in which an applicant was rejected and would have performed poorly if he or she were hired; decision is true because of the correct prediction that the applicant would not be a good performer and negative because the applicant was not hired
cut score
specified point in a distribution of scores below which candidates are rejected; also known as a "cutoff score"
criterion-referenced cut score
established by considering the desired level of performance for a new hire and finding the test score that corresponds to the desired level of performance; sometimes called "domain-referenced" cut score
norm-referenced cut score
based on some index of the test-takers' scores rather than any notion of job performance
Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures
official government guidelines designed to assist employers, labor organizations, employment agencies, and licensing and certification boards to comply with federal requirements
base rate
percentage of the current work force that is performing successfully
utility analysis
technique that assesses the economic return on investment of human resource interventions such as staffing or training
comprehensive staffing model
model that gathers enough high quality information about candidates to predict the likelihood of their success on the varied demands of the job
clinical decision making
uses judgment to combine information and to make a decision about the relative value of different candidates or applicants
statistical decision making
combines information according to a mathematical formula
compensatory system
model in which a good score on one test can compensate for a lower score on another test
hurdle system
noncompensatory strategy in which an individual has no opportunity to compensate at a later assessment stage for a low score in an earlier stage of the assessment process
multiple hurdle system
constructed from multiple hurdles so that candidates who did not exceed each of the minimum dimension scores are excluded from further consideration
multiple regression analysis
results in an equation for combining test scores into a composite based on the correlations among the test score and the correlations of each test score with the performance score
process used with multiple regression techniques in which a regression equation developed on a first sample is tested on a second sample to determine if it still fits well; usually carried out with an incumbent sample, and the cross-validated results are used to weight the predictor scores of an applicant sample
score banding
approach in which individuals with similar test scores are grouped together in a category or score band, and selection within the band is then made based on other considerations
standard error of measurement (SEM)
statistic that provides a measure of the amount of error in a test score distribution; function of the reliability of the test and the variability in test scores
fixed band system
candidates in lower bands are not considered until higher bands have been completely exhausted
sliding band system
permits the band to be moved down a score point (or to slide) when the highest score in a band is exhausted
subgroup norming
approach that develops separate lists for individuals within different demographic groups, then ranks the candidates within their respective demographic group
termination for cause
an individual is fired from and organization for a particular reason; the individual has usually been warned one or more times about a problem, and either cannot or will not correct it
job loss due to employer downsizing or reductions in force; usually comes without warning or with a generic warning that the workforce will be reduced
expert witness
witness in a lawsuit who is permitted to voice opinions about organizational practices
adverse (or disparate) treatment
type of discrimination in which the plaintiff attempts to show that the employer actually treated the plaintiff differently than majority applicants or employees; intentional discrimination
adverse impact
type of discrimination that acknowledges the employer may not have intended to discriminate against a plaintiff, but an employer practice did have an adverse impact on the group to which the plaintiff belongs
"80 percent" or "4/5ths" rule
guideline for assessing whether there is evidence of adverse impact; if it can be shown that a protected group received less than 80 percent of the desirable outcomes (e.g. job offers, promotions) received by a majority group, the plaintiffs can claim to have met the burden of demonstrating adverse impact
adverse impact ratio
obtained by dividing the selection ratio of the protected group by the selection ratio of the majority group; if this ratio is lower than 80 percent, there is evidence of adverse impact
interview under oath taken by an opposing attorney in a lawsuit
process in which lawyers are given access to potential witnesses who will be called by the other side, as well as any documents relevant to the complaints
class certification
judge's decision based on several criteria that determine whether individual plaintiffs can file together under a class action suit
settlement discussions
conducted by the parties in a lawsuit in an attempt to reach a mutually satisfying resolution of the complaint before proceeding with all of the other steps that lead to a trial