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61 Cards in this Set

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Name the landmark I/O case that affected the issue of testing at the workplace AND the outcome
Griggs v. Duke Power Company; broad general testing was faulted and requirement that tests be skill-based established
Name the three major problems that can result in discrimination
Adverse impact
Unfairness
Differential validity
T or F: You may choose not to hire someone because they are currently in drug rehabilitation.
False. What law prohibits this?
ADA
Prohibitions against discrimination on basis of sex, race, etc. comes from what law?
Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964/Equal Employment Opportunity Act
The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection regulate what I/O issue and in what way?
Testing. Cannot use tests that adversely impact hiring, promotion, or selection UNLESS the test is validated, has utility, and no alternative is available.
According to the ADA, employers must make what to a "qualified individual with disability"?
Reasonable accommodations
ADA says what about drug testing?
Explicitly takes no stand.
Adverse impact is based on what rule?
80% or 4/5th rule
Concept of adverse impact compares what?
Percentage of non-minority applicants hired to percentage of minority applicants hired.
In order to avoid adverse impact, if a company hires 50% of applicants who are white, how many minority applicants must it hire?
50% x 4/5 = 40% of non-minority applicants must be hired
If majority and minority group outcomes scores on a predictor form two parallel regression lines, what does this suggest about the predictor?
It's unfair.
What can you conclude about a test where minorities and non-minorities score differently on a predictor test yet perform similarly on the criterion?
The test is unfair.
If a test has a criterion-related validity coefficient of .45 for Whites and .25 for Hispanics, what has occurred?
Differential validity
What is a job analysis?
Procedure for the collection and analysis of data that provides information about job tasks and job requirements.
Another name for job tasks is
Job description
Another name for job requirements is
Job specifications
Another name for job description is
Job tasks
Another name for job specifications is
Job requirements
An employer who wants to validate selection procedures, determine wages, or ascertain training needs may do a(n)
Job analysis
What is a job evaluation?
Formal process that determines the financial worth of a specific job to an organization.
What is a procedure for the collection and analysis of data that provides information about job tasks and job requirements?
Job analysis
What is a formal process that determines the financial worth of a specific job to an organization?
Job evaluation
To be EEO compliant and base hiring, promotion, and evaluation decisions on job-related criteria, this process can provide that data.
Job analysis
What is the critical incident technique?
Process that ascertains specific actions leading to desirable/successful or undesirable/unsuccessful consequences on the job.
A determination that greeting customers pleasantly is an action with a desirable consequence may be the result of what process?
Critical incident technique
Of the techniques that solicit biodata, this is a good predictor of job performance:
Biographical Information Blank (BIB)
The BIB is a good predictor of these two criteria:
Job success
Turnover
These have the worst criterion-related validity in employee selection
Interviews. Why?
Influenced by multiple biases.
Interview validity increases if:
They're structured with multiple interviewers and if interviewers are trained.
What is first impression bias in interviewing?
Initial impression of candidate influences rest of interview
What is negative information bias in interviewing?
Tendency for interviewer to overlook strengths after 1-2 negatives.
What is contrast effect in interviewing?
Tendency to rate the candidate in contrast to the candidate interviewed just before (strong previous candidate makes you look worse/poor previous candidate makes you look better).
What is the halo effect?
Generalizing from one characteristic of the candidate to the entire candidate (can be positive or negative) (attractiveness is commonly the characteristic).
Comment on the criterion-related validity of references and letters of rec.
Poor.
The multiple regression approach to selection is a ____ technique, in which:
Compensatory;
Low scores on one predictor may be compensated for by high scores on other predictors
The multiple cutoff approach to selection is a ____ technique, in which:
Noncompensatory;
Only applicants who meet or exceed the cutoff on each predictor will be considered
The multiple hurdle approach to selection is a ___ technique, in which:
Noncompensatory;
Applicants must meet or exceed the cutoff on the first predictor to move on to the second and so on.
Performance is believed to be a function of:
Ability
Motivation
Opportunity
Methods of employee evaluation can be either:
Comparative or Individual (Absolute)
What are three comparative methods for employee evaluation?
Straight rankings
Forced distribution
Paired comparison
What is a paired comparison method of employee evaluation?
Each employee is compared to every other employee in pairs.
This is an individual method of employee evaluation that employs likert type scales.
Graphic rating scales
BARS stands for
Behaviorally anchored rating scales.
In BARS, behavioral anchors are based on:
Critical incidents
Cons of BARS
Scale development is expensive/time-consuming; ratings are not based on actual performance but on hypothetical performance in hypothetical situations
BOS stands for
Behavioral observation scale
BOS measures
the extent to which a person engages in every bex on the scale
What is the forced choice method of evaluation?
Rate must choose between two seemingly equally un/desirable choices (e.g.: reliable/agreeable)
What is the advantage of the forced choice method of evaluation?
Controls for biases (such as halo effect, strictness/lenient bias)
MBO stands for
Management by objectives
How does MBO work?
Employees and supervisors collaborate on goals, which is later followed by a performance review
MBO has been found to be effective in increasing:
Motivation
Productivity
Compare strictness set, leniency set, and central tendency set errors in evaluation.
Strictness: rater gives mostly low ratings
Leniency: rater gives mostly high ratings
Central tendency: rater gives mostly average ratings
What is the halo error in employee evaluation?
When performance is based on one positive or negative aspect of the individual
What is the recency bias in employee evaluation?
Tendency of rater to remember only recent bexs when evaluation covers a long period of time (e.g., one year)
What attribution errors do supervisors tend to make in evaluating employees?
Attribute poor performance of workers they dislike to internal factors and of workers they do like to external factors.
Supervisors who participated in the hiring of an employee tend to rate them [higher/lower] in evaluations.
Higher
A useful strategy for reducing rater error is
Frame of reference (FOR) training
FOR stands for
Frame of reference training
How does FOR work?
Provides specific criteria for and examples of bexs that constitute different levels of performance
Employee ratings may be improved by:
Training raters on instrument to be used
Using multiple raters
Using ongoing ratings
Basing ratings on clear/specific standards obtained through job analysis