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174 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Process by which a person/ group or organization influence or transmits to another person/ group or organization
communication
Component of communication:
Person who in sending the info
Sender
Component of communication:
Sender's job to put info in some form that he/she thinks iwll be effectively perceived
Encode
Component of communication:
Getting from pt A to pt B; sound waves, light waves, telephone line
Channel of communication
Component of communication:
Person who gets communication
Receiver
Component of communication:
When the receiver breaks the info down to the best of their ability
Decode
Component of communication:
Receiver sends info back to sender like verbal/ verbal; letting sender know that they received info and it was either accepted or not accepted
Feedback
Component of communication:
Anything that interupts the process; i.e. sneeze...
Noise
Forms of communication:
Using words
Verbal
Forms of communication:
This is better for immediate attention and immediate feedback; very effective in terms of praise b/c praise is immediate and other people will hear praise and then model bx
Oral
Forms of communication:
Used if future action is desired b/c it works as a reminder
Written
Managers perfer _____ if the task if difficult; get feedback
Oral
Managers perfer _______ if the task is easy
Written
For advertisement, more difficult the advertisement should be in ______ from b/c feedback is not possible
Written (people can reread the info that they do not understand)
When advertisement is easy to understand, should be _____ form
Oral
Communication like body language and facial expressions
Nonverbal
Patterns of communication:
unit-to-unit/ group-to-group; formal patterns of interrelationships with units of analysis
Organization structure
Organization structure:
Information that poeple higher up need to do task; i.e. student --> teacher --> dean -->chair...
Upward
Organization structure:
Sender is higher on organization chart; this happends when they find directives or orders - tell them what to do
Downward
Organization structure:
People in same level communicate; like two differnt deans; this is the least formal
Horizontal
Patterens of communication:
Communication within a group
Communication network
Communication network
The people around the _____ communicate with the center
Star network

moe
I
Bud ------Larry------curly
I
Lou
Communication network
When all the people in teh network communicate together
All chair network
Different criteria for communication network:
How centrilized is network; how much does info flow to one central network?
Centrilization
Different criteria for communication network:
Star = ____ centrilization
All chair = ____ centrilization
High
Low
Different criteria for communication network:
If we look at network, can we guess who the leader is?
Leadership predictability
Different criteria for communication network:
____ leadership in star
____ leadership in all-chain
High
Low
Different criteria for communication network:
How happy is the avg group member?
Average group member satisfaction
Different criteria for communication network:
Star = ____ avg of satis
All chain = ____ avg of satis
Low
High
Different criteria for communication network:
How much does the satisfaction vary from one person to another
Range of member satisfaction
Range of member satisfaction:
Star = ____ range
All chain = ____ range
Star = high range (centeralized person loves it, everyone else, not so much)
All-chain = Low range, everyone loves it
Enhancing communication:
At the personal level
Individual level/ stratagies
Individual level/ stratagies:
Don't overload person with jargon
KISS- keep it simple stupid
Individual level/ stratagies
Need to put effort to listening
Active listener
Individual level/ stratagies
Don't give them a message at 4:30 on Friday
Be care of time of message
Individual level/ stratagies
Say it again in _____ way
Different
Enhancing communication:
Big picture
Organization stratagies
Organization stratagies
Want people to know that it is ok to talk and express tru feelings
Favoriable organization climate
Organization stratagies
Only talk about stuff that matters
Screen out messages to teh ones matter
Organization stratagies
Allow for necessary _____
feedback
Shared beliefs, values, attitudes, expectations of the organization's members
Organization culture
Organization culture tells us how we are suppost to ____ and _____
Feel and act
Organization culture lends _____
stability
Origins of Organization culture:
People who set up organization
Founders of organization
Origins of Organization culture:
This is the law of effect at a Macrolevel
Interactions with the external environment
Origins of Organization culture:
How the workers differ; i.e. Phych teacher and Business teacher
Characteristics of the workers
Origins of Organization culture:
We are impacted by culture around us
Culture of the ENTIRE culture; culture at large
Levels of analysis 2
Learning the O.C. occurs through _____
Organization socialization
Organization socialization
Stage 1: Anticipatory socialization; learning about organization culture
Getting in
If anticipatroy socialization doesn't happen or isn't ture will experience ____ ____
culture shock
Tells you good and bad things about organization so you know what you're geting into
Realistic job previews
Organization socialization:
Stage 2: Teaching your culture to the employee; i.e. orientation program; clearly show their culture
Breaking in/encounter stage
Organization socialization
stage 3: Metamorphisis; when you internalize the culture
Settling in
Level of analysis III:
Sometimes, the culture is enough to survive on its own; i.e. Disney, so will want to do whatever you can to amke sure that it is ____
Maintaing the O.C.
Maintaing the O.C.
Hire whatever match your culture
Hire the right people
Maintaing the O.C.
Make sure that employees are doing it "your way"
Train people that you've hired to fit the culture
Maintaing the O.C.
If you can't train them, need to ____ them
Fire
Level of analyisi IV:
Change the O.C. if the ____ is bad:
Culture
Change the O.C. if culture is bad:
Hire people that ____ culture you want
match
Change the O.C. if culture is bad:
Need to teach "old-culture" people to be new culture
Training
Change the O.C. if culture is bad:
____ the one's who can't learn new culture
Fire
It is easier to ____ the O.C. than ____ it
Maintain
Change
Pos or neg evaluation of something; people, place, things or tasks
Attitude
Three components of attitude:
1. (emotional)
2. (what you do)
3. (what you thought; i.e. unfair, boss showing favortism...)
1. Affective
2. Bx
3. Cognition
Ability of attitudes to predict bx/ responce =
Yes, but not as good as one might think
Want to be as accurate as possible in ____ from attitide to bx: want good ____
link
predictions
Stratagies that can be employed to make link from attitude to bx closer:
Measure ______ attitudes; i.e. organazation satisfaction isn't a good measure b/c its not a specific task
Specific!
Stratagies that can be employed to make link from attitude to bx closer:
Measure ____ attitudes; don't want the socially desirable responce, but an actual responce
Real!
Stratagies that can be employed to make link from attitude to bx closer:
We usually engage in bx before we do this; however if we do this first, then we know how we feel before we do bx
Activiating attitude
Act a certain way, so I feel
Bx to attitude link
Bx to attitude link:
What we do can lead to a change of how we feel/ what we think; example in
Cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance or ___ and ___ not matching up leads to _____; leads to ____
Bx and attitudes not matching up ---> unwanted tension ---> either changing bx or attitude
In cog dis, attitude is more likely to change b/c
1.
2.
1. attitude is easier to change
2. sometimes you can't change the bx
Type of cog dissonance where person changes bx or attitude b/c there wasn't justification
Insufficient Justification = cog dissance
Type of cog dissonance where person puts forth a lot of effort and will change attitude to convience yourself it was important
Effort justification
Type of cog dissonance were person will change attitude or bx after a decision has been made to match their decision
Post-decision dissonance
Pos or neg evaluation/attitude about the work that you do
satisfaction in job
Causes for job satisfaction:
1. ____ system
Reward
Causes for job sat; Reward system:
____ theory; states that if we feel as though what we are getting is equal to others, we will be satisfied
Equity theory
Causes for job sat; Reward system:
States that we will be satisfied with job if rewards are ones that we want; like valence; so, if we work toward a task just for a title, and we only get raises, we won't be satisfied
Locke's Value Theory
Causes for job sat
2. Job _____/______
Job ____ model
Enrichment/enlargment
Characteristic
Causes for job sat
3. Attractiveness and motiveation
Focus on the goal; energization theory
Causes for job sat
4. ____ leadership b/c employees are able to give input
Democratic
Causes for job sat
5. Just giving them attention/ caring will increase attention
Hawthorne effect/ Human relations approach
Causes for job sat
6. People with high levels of _____ and _____locus of control
Personality
Self-esteem
Internal
Causes for job sat
7. Hard to be satisfied if person in charge is an idiot
Competent supervision
Causes for job sat
8. This will increase satisfication b/c of togetherness
Cohesion
Causes for job sat
9. Not having all the info go into just one person; everyone can talk to everyone
Decentrilization
This takes into consideration job and person
Model of job satisfaction
Model of job satisfaction:
Person side, some people are happy/ some people are mean; this is stating that people are happy
Positive affect
Model of job satisfaction
What you perceive of the job; what you do
Objective job characteristics and circumstances
Model of job satisfaction
Subjective side; Happy poeple feel that their job is fun
Interpretation of job characteristics and circumstances
If positive affect, objective job characteristics and cirucmstances and its interpretation are positive, then will have...
Job satisfaction
Most poeple like what they do, but when asked, most would do it differently if given the chance
Prevelence
Effects of satisfaction:
These are negatively correlated but magnitiude is small; good example of attitudes does predict bx, but not very well
Increase satisfaction = decrease turnover
Effects of satisfaction:
These are positively correlated; still small correlation
Increase satisfaction and increase performance
Attitude about organ; not what you do, who you do it for and how long you want to be with that organization
Organazation commitment
Organazation commitment:
Degree person wants to continue to work for organ b/c it would be too costly to leave; i.e. 2 years away from vesting in retirement plan
Continuance commitment
Organazation commitment:
They agree with the underlying values of goals/purpose of organization; like volenteer organization
Affective commitment
Organazation commitment:
Individual stays with organization b/c they are feeling pressure from friends
Normative commitment
Effects of benifits commitment:
1. ___ absentism and ___ turnover
decrease and decrease
Effects of benifits commitment:
2. Their company, share goals, desires
Shared sence of purpose
The emotional, psychological and cognitive reactions to situation in which the attainment of desired goals is threatened
Stress
Components of stress:
Stressed out = cranky, irritable, bad mood
Emotional
Components of stress:
General adaptation syndrom; helps us understand this component
Psysiological
Reactions to stress are _____; it doesn't matter what stressor is or who/ what you are; it is all the same
nonspecific
Steps in general adaptation syndrom:
Onset of teh stressor; level of arousal is high; rush of energy
Alarm
Steps in general adaptation syndrom:
This is done to cope with stress; high level of psychological arousal; as stress goes on and on, arousal goes down and down
Resistance phase
Steps in general adaptation syndrom:
If stressor contines, get fatigue or illness, be on edge, tired, burned out
Exaustion
Components of stress:
This is teh interpretation side of teh stressor; i.e. scared/ happy/ excited; what we are telling ourselves about teh stressor
Cognitive component
Causes of stress (occupational):
1. Sometimes stress is a good thing; what they do happens to be stressful
Occupational demands
Causes of stress (occupational):
2. Social positions with rules and sometimes, stress comes along with it
Role difficulty
Causes of stress (occupational) Role conflict:
Conflict b/w two compeating roles; i.e. parent and job; "one fine day"
Inter-role conflict
Causes of stress (occupational) Role conflict:
Conflict with one role, but role has conflicting parts
Intra-role conflict
Causes of stress (occupational) Role conflict:
Unsaught leadership; who I am as an ind; i.e. follow not leader
Personality-role conflict
Causes of stress (occupational) Role difficulty:
Happens when role is unclear; this is why first few days are stressful
Role ambiguity
Causes of stress (occupational)
Too many things to do in limited amount of time; not enough time to do it all
Quanitive overload
Causes of stress
What you have to do. Am I qualified?
Qualitative overload
Causes of stress
Not enough to do
Quanitative underload
Causes of stress
Even though work is there, not challenging enough, "busy" work
Qualitative underload
4. Causes of stress
Accountable for others actions, but you can't control what they do
Responsibility for others
5. Causes of stress
Feel stressed if you lack this
Lack of social support
When people are feeling anxity/ stresed, they seek _____
social support
Causes of stress ; Personal causes:
Bring stress to the organization, may not be the job that is making you stressed; this is because the person and the organ have a _____ relationship
Stressful life events
Bidirectional relationship
Effects of stress:
1. Exaustion stage; if stressed out long enough will impact _____
health
2. Cognitive and Somatic anxity
Task performance
This had a negative linear relationship for stress; decrease ____ stress is increase performance; increase ____ stress is decrased performance
Cognitive
This is an inverted U relationship; increased and decrease ____ stress = low performance, Mod ____ stress = high performance
Somatic stress
Individual differences:
These people hand stress better
Optimism
Individual differences:
This type of coping is done to reduce or eleminate the stresser
Active coping stratigies
Opmistic people use _____ coping stratigies
active
Individual differences:
Stop/gap approach; temporary approach; getting drunk, watching movie
passive
Assertive, aggressive and love deadlines; very stressed out; seek our high stress and interpret jobs as being stressful
Type A personalities
C.E.O and Top people are more likely to be type ___ b/c they live longer and they deal with innovative thinking
Type B
Managing stress, Individual tatics:
1. Eating healthly
2. Breath in--- breath out
3. like self-talk
Diet and exercise
Relaxation training
Cognitive restructing
Managing sttress; Organ tatics:
1. Not the star model
2. Horizontal and vertical
3. these keep member healthy
1. Decentrilization
2. Job enrichment/enlargment
3. Wellness programs
Rather than working together, working against each other
Conflict
Causes of conflict Organizational:
1. Only so many good offices, so many multimedia classrooms
Limited resources
Causes of conflict Organizational:
2. Based on position of status
Status discrepencies
Causes of conflict Organizational:
3. WHo deals with problems
Judidical disputs
Causes of conflict Organizational:
4. Tinure, grade on a curve
Reward system
Causes of conflict Interpersonal:
1. These are hard to go away
Grudges
Causes of conflict Organizational:
2. When someone things that another person did a bx for a particular reason, then they actually did it for another reason
Faulty attributions
Causes of conflict Organizational:
3. Not saying things to help, but to embarress
Destructive critism
Causes of conflict Organizational:
4. Just don't like each other, they can't work together
Incompatible personalities
Causes of conflict Intra-personal:
About ___ and ___ conflicts
You
Positive/ functional conflicts can:
1. Things are out in the open which cause less ______ _____
social tentions
Positive/ functional conflicts can:
2. System that is better than other/ old system; find a plan of attack that is better
Innovation
Positive/ functional conflicts can:
3. Open _____ of communication
lines
Positive/ functional conflicts can:
4. Provide ____ about stability
Feedback
Positive/ functional conflicts can:
5. Increase in gp _____
cohesion
Neg (dysfunctional) conflicts:
1. Adopt and ____ style of leadership
autocratic
Neg (dysfunctional) conflicts:
2. _____ in communication:
decrease
Neg (dysfunctional) conflicts:
3. ____ levels of stress
high
Neg (dysfunctional) conflicts:
4. ____ attention from other more important matters
Deverts
Focused on those situations where conflict is occuring and we are a part of it
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management:
Uncooperative and unassertive =
Avoiding
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management
Uncooperative and assertive =
Forcing
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management
Cooperative and unasserative
Accommodeting
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management
Cooperative and assertive
Collaborating
Concern for other =
Concern for self =
Cooperativeness
Assertivenss
In the middle of Interpersonal styles of conflinct management is
Compromisin
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management; Do ____ when you
1. Don't care
2. Have other issues to deal with
3. Need more info
4. Maybe you need to give people time to cool down
Avoiding
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management; _____ should be used when
1. Topic envolves emergancy and you know procedures
2. When needing to do an unpopular decision
Forcing
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management; do _____ when:
1. Trying to gather markers on down the road; reciprocity
2. WHen you are wrong
3. Maintian shortterm harmoney
Accommodating
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management; Do _____ when there are time contrants; this is the give and take aspect
Compromising
Interpersonal styles of conflinct management; This is the win-win situation; this takes time; used when:
1. There isn't a time contraint
2. Equality of power is necessary
Collaborating
WHen you are not in fight, not your conflict, just settling or at least decreasing conflict
Conflict mediation
Conflict mediation:
Phase 1; Mediator's job is to get the overview/ facts and talk to people
Briefing stage
Conflict mediation:
Phase 2; Get parties together; established; safe boundries; group rules established
The opening
Conflict mediation:
Phase 3; Mediator starts with overview/ summary; then each side talks about their side of the conflict to the mediator; goal: have each party talk without being interupted
Issue
Conflict mediation:
Phase 4: Speak to each other and hopefully they understanding each other; they say things that the OTHER person is feeling
Understand
Conflict mediation:
Phase 5: Resolution as much as possible; develop a clear, mutual, working agreement; put them in writting and sing "once done, its done."
Aggreement
Conflict mediation:
Phase 6; Affirm all parties; leave excited; feel better off now; obtain feedback b/c you can't trust everyone; bring them back again and ask how they are doing
CLosing