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58 Cards in this Set

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What is level of organizational COMMITTMENT most predictive of?
TURNOVER (and SATISFACTION).

It is also related to the individual's WILLINGNESS to exert EFFORT on behalf of the company.

What is level of organizational COMMITTMENT most predictive of?
What were BROUSSEAU and DRIVER'S theory on Career Concept & it's Dimensions?
4 CAREER CONCEPTS:

1. Steady State
2. Linear (MOVING UP, EG MANAGER TO CEO)
3. Spiral (I/O PSY TO GEROPSY)
4. Transitory (PSYCHOLOGIST TO ASTRONOMER)

3 Dimensions:

1. FREQUENCY of JOB CHANGE
2. DIRECTION OF CHANGE
3. TYPE OF CHANGE IN JOB CONTENT

(What were BROUSSEAU and DRIVER'S theory on Career Concept & it's Dimensions?)
What was KRUMBOLTZ Theory of Career Development?
-CAREER DEVELOPMENT and CAREER CHOICE are related primarily to: SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

-instilling an attitude of self-development in the individual so that he/she can adapt to changing work requirements in the future.

What was KRUMBOLTZ' Theory of Career Development?
What are "IDENTICAL ELEMENTS?"
It refers to Thorndike and Woodworth's theory:
"Identical Elements" = for TRANSFER OF TRAINING.

What are "IDENTICAL ELEMENTS?"
What is an example of a FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLAN?
AKA Cafeteria Benefit Plan, gives employees greater control over and flexibility in the benefits they received. It does not tie rewards to performance.

What is an example of a FLEXIBLE BENEFIT PLAN?
What are some TYPES OF INCENTIVE PLANS?
GAIN SHARING AND MERIT PAY

What are some TYPES OF INCENTIVE PLANS?
What is Herzberg's "two-factor theory?"
INCREASE JOB MOTIVATION:

INCREASING: AUTONOMY

INCREASING: JOB RESPONSIBILITY

What is Herzperg's "two-factor theory?"
FOR EXAMPLE, YOU'LL BE MOTIVATED MORE AS YOU GAIN MORE RESPONSIBILITY (SUPERVISE LOWER LEVEL EMPLOYEES)
When will a PREDICTOR have the HIGHEST INCREMENTAL VALIDITY?
~LOW (SR) SELECTION RATIO

~MODERATE (BR) BASE RATE

When will a PREDICTOR have the HIGHEST INCREMENTAL VALIDITY?
A test's incremental validity refers to the benefits that use of the test provides with regard to decision-making accuracy
How would you describe JOB SATISFACTION?
-It's a STABLE TRAIT (minimally affected by job changes)

-directly related to the tendency toward positive or negative affect

How would you describe JOB SATISFACTION?
What does it mean when a TEST has DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY?
When the test does not correlate significantly with other tests that measure DIFFERENT TRAITS, CHARACTERISTICS, or ABILITIES.

Discriminant validity provides evidence of a test's construct validity.

What does it mean when a TEST has DISCRIMINANT VALIDITY?
What does it mean when a TEST has DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY?
Means that it's VALIDITY COEFFICIENT for one subgroup is DIFFERENT from its VALIDITY COEFFICIENT for another subgroup.

What does it mean when a TEST has DIFFERENTIAL VALIDITY?
eg 2 GROUPS HAVE THE SAME OR DIFFERENT MEAN ON THE PREDICTOR BUT DIFFERENT SLOPES BETWEEN THE PREDICTOR AND CRITERION
What does it mean when a TEST has CONGRUENT VALIDITY?
The test CORRELATES, HIGHLY with an established test that measures the SAME TRAIT.

What does it mean when a TEST has CONGRUENT VALIDITY?
WHAT ARE 3 WAYS TO COMBINE PREDICTORS?
multiple REGRESSION, multiple CUTOFF, AND multiple SUCCESSIVE HURDLES.

3 ways to combine predictors
WHAT IS A FORMATIVE EVALUATION?
-USUALLY DONE WHILE A PROGRAM IS BEING DEVELOPED

-USED TO ~MODIFY~ THE PROGRAM.

What is a Formative Evaluation?
WHAT IS A SUMMATIVE EVALUATION?
-Done AFTER the program is implemented

-To ASSESS OUTCOMES

WHAT IS A SUMMATIVE EVALUATION?
WHAT IS SUPER KNOWN FOR?
HE HAS A THEORY OF CAREER DEV AND CAREER CHOICE.

YOUR JOB SHOULD MATCH YOUR ~SELF-CONCEPT~

HE TALKED ABOUT: CAREER MATURITY, LIFE-SPACE, LIFE CAREER RAINBOW (5 STAGES IN LIFESPAN).

What is Super known for?
WHAT WAS ROE ABOUT?
-CAREER DEV. THEORY

-INFLUENCED BY MASLOW

-Your choosing of a CAREER/OCCUPATION is linked to your ~PERSONALITY and BASIC NEEDS~

WHAT WAS ROE ABOUT?
WHAT DID TIEDERMAN AND O'HARA'S THEORY OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT ENTAIL?
-THEORY OF CAREER DEV.

-ERIKSON'S PSYCHOSOC STAGES OF IDENTITY DEV.

-INVOLVING 2 REPETITIVE PROCESSES AND 2 PHASES:
(GOAL, INTEGRATE THE FOLLOWING):

1. DIFFERENTIATION
2. INTEGRATION

2 PHASES

1. ANTICIPATION/PREOCCUPATION
2. IMPLEMENTATION/ADJUSTMENT

Tiedeman and O'Hara (1963) viewed career development as a process involving the acquisition of a PERSONAL VOCATIONAL IDENTITY.

WHAT DID TIEDERMAN AND O'HARA'S THEORY OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT ENTAIL?
WHAT DOES THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY(ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY) SAY IS IMPT. ?
MONEY IS MOST IMPT MOTIVATOR, NOT INTRINSIC FACTORS (eg JOB ENRICHMENT)


WHAT DOES THE SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT THEORY(ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY) SAY IS IMPT. ?
WHICH IS THEORY IS BETTER TO HAVE IN AN EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION? THEORY X OR THEORY Y?
-THEORY Y
-MANAGERS BELIEVE WORK IS "AS NATURAL AS PLAY." --WORKERS ARE CAPABLE OF:
~SELF-CONTROL
~SELF-DIRECTION.

WHICH IS THEORY IS BETTER TO HAVE IN AN EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION? THEORY X OR THEORY Y?
HOW DO YOU ALLEVIATE ALIENATION AND BOREDOM IN THE WORK PLACE?
-JOB ENLARGEMENT
-JOB ENRICHMENT
-JOB ROTATION

HOW TO ALLEVIATE ALIENATION AND BOREDOM IN THE WORK PLACE
WHAT HAPPENS IN MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES?
-THE EMPLOYER & EMPLOYEE DET GOALS.

-PART OF GOAL SETTING THEORY

MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES
WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT?
1. AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT (LOYAL)

2. CONTINUANCE COMMITMENT (I CAN'T LEAVE, I NEED THE $$)

WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT?
WHAT ARE HIGH LPC LEADERS LIKE?
RELATIONSHIP ORIENTED. SUPPORTIVE AND TRUSTING RELATIONSHIP WITH SUBORDINATE IS IMPORTANT.

HIGH LPC LEADERS
WHAT ARE LOW LPC LEADERS LIKE?
TASK ORIENTED. THESE LEADERS ARE MOST INTERESTED IN GOAL ACHIEVEMENT.

LOW LPC LEADERS
WHAT ARE HERSHEY AND BLANCHARDS' 4 LEADERSHIP STYLES?
A=ABILITY
W=WILLINGNESS

1. TELLING LEADER (LOW A AND LOW W)

2. SELLING LEADER (LOW A AND HIGH W)

3. PARTICIPATING LEADER (HIGH A AND LOW W)

4. DELEGATING LEADER (HIGH A AND HIGH W)

NOTE: the leaders style should match the employee's MATURITY LEVEL

HERSHEY AND BLANCHARDS' 4 LEADERSHIP STYLES
WHAT IS THE VROOM-YETTON-JAGO NORMATIVE MODEL ABOUT?
FOCUSES ON A LEADERS DECISION MAKING STYLE

A1 = MAKES DECISION ALONE.

A11 = MAKES FINAL DECISION BUT UTILIZES INPUT

C1 = LEADER TALKS TO EMPLOYEES 1:1, HE MAY OR MAY NOT USE THE EMPLOYEES INPUT.

C11 = LEADER TALKS TO EMPLOYEES AS A GROUP, MAY OR MAY NOT USE EMPLOYEES'INPUT.

G = LEADER EXPLAINS PROBLEM TO EMPLOYEES AS A GROUP AND THE GROUP MAKES THE FINAL DECISION

VROOM-YETTON-JAGO NORMATIVE MODEL
WHAT ARE DISJUNCTIVE GROUP TASKS?
the group uses the BEST MEMBER'S suggestion.

DISJUNCTIVE GROUP TASKS
WHAT ARE CONJUNCTIVE GROUP TASKS?
The WORST PERFORMING member is limiting the groups overall performance

CONJUNCTIVE GROUP TASKS
WHAT ARE COMPENSATORY GROUP TASKS?
INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTIONS/INPUTS ARE AVERAGED.

COMPENSATORY GROUP TASKS
WHAT ARE ADDITIVE GROUP TASKS?
People in the group help or contribute to the GROUP PRODUCT.

ADDITIVE GROUP TASKS
What is occuring when one is using the BOUNDED RATIONALITY (ADMINISTRATIVE) MODEL to make decisions?
SATISFICING NOT OPTIMIZING.

OFTEN FAILS IN ORGANIZATIONS, BEC THERE IS INSUFFICIENT INFORMATION, TIME, AND MONEY

BOUNDED RATIONALITY (ADMINISTRATIVE) MODEL
WHAT IS GROUP POLARIZATION?
MAKING EXTREME DECISIONS.

GROUP POLARIZATION
WHAT IS GROUPTHINK?
A SUSPENSION OF CRITICAL THINKING.

GROUPTHINK
WHAT DOES A PROCESS CONSULTANT DO?
Focus on: The PROCESSES/INTERVENTIONS BET. PEOPLE and how they INTERFERE with ACHIEVEMENT of their goals.

A PROCESS CONSULTANT'S JOB
TRUE OR FALSE: HERZBERG'S TWO FACTOR THEORY STATES THAT PAY IS A SOURCE OF MOTIVATION.
FALSE. IT'S A HYGIENE FACTOR NOT A MOTIVATOR FACTOR.

HERZBERG'S VIEW OF PAY/MONEY AS A SOURCE OF MOTIVATION
WHAT IS BIODATA?
-One of the most valid predictors of JOB PERFORMANCE. DOESN'T DISCRIMINATE AGAINST, RACE/ETHNICITY OR GENDER.

-RESEARCH IS NEEDED TO FIND OUT WHICH ASPECTS OF GOOD JOB PERFORMANCE BIODATA IS GOOD FOR PREDICTING

(don't forget COGNITVE ABILITY TESTS are still better)

BIODATA
HOW SHOULD MANAGERS INFLUENCE SUBORDINATES?
-CONSULTATION
-INSPIRATIONAL APPEALS
-RATIONAL PERSUASION

HOW MANAGERS SHOULD INFLUENCE SUBORDINATES
WHAT ARE SOME OBJECTIVE (DIRECT) MEASURES?
PRODUCTION & PERSONNEL DATA

~How much UNITS u SOLD

These are:

-OFTEN INADEQUATE

OBJECTIVE (DIRECT) MEASURES
WHAT ARE SOME SUBJECTIVE MEASURES?
RELATIVE & ABSOLUTE Measures

-PEER RATINGS
-SELF-RATINGS
-SUPERVISOR RATINGS (MOST RELIABLE & USED MOST,
-RATING SCALES, USED BY EMPLOYERS TO RATE EMPLOYEES

(MORE USEFUL THAN OBJECTIVE MEASURES)

SUBJECTIVE MEASURES
WHAT ARE SOME RELATIVE SUBJECTIVE MEASURES?
-PAIRED COMPARISON
-FORCED DISTRIBUTION

RELATIVE SUBJECTIVE MEASURES
WHAT ARE SOME ABSOLUTE MEASURES?
-BARS
-CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE
-LIKERT TYPE SCALES
-RANKING TYPE SCALES

ABSOLUTE MEASURES
WHAT IS UNFAIRNESS?
When a PREDICTOR has SAME VALIDITY COEFFICIENT for the 2 GROUPS but, PPL in the 1ST GROUP CONSISTENTLY GET LOW SCORES than OTHER GROUPS EVEN THOUGH THEY DO JUST AS WELL ON THE TASKS.

CURE: LOWER THE PREDICTOR CUTOFF.

UNFAIRNESS
DESCRIBE FIELDER'S CONTINGENCY THEORY
A THEORY OF LEADERSHIP THAT INDICATES THAT BOTH:

LEADERSHIP STYLE + THE

FAVORABLENESS OF THE SITUATION

DETERMINE AN EFFECTIVE LEADER OR NOT.

FIELDER'S CONTINGENCY THEORY
WHAT IS HOUSE'S PATH GOAL THEORY?
STATES THAT IF YOU HELP YOUR SUBORDINATES REACH THEIR GOALS, THEY WILL BE MOTIVATED AND SATISFIED.

~According to path-goal theory, the best leadership style depends on certain characteristics of the task/SITUATION (e.g., level of ambiguity, structure) and of the workers (e.g., traits, abilities).

HOUSE'S PATH GOAL THEROY
WHAT ARE HOUSE'S PATH GOAL THEORY LEADERSHIP STYLES?
1. INSTRUMENTAL (GUIDELINES)

2. SUPPORTIVE (RELATIONSHIP FOCUS)

3. PARTICIPATIVE (INCLUDES SUBORDINATES WHEN MAKING DECISIONS)

4. ACHIEVEMENT ORIENTED (SET REALLY CHALLENGING GOALS)

HOUSE'S PATH GOAL THEORY, LEADERSHIP STYLES
TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS
~MAINTAIN THE STATUS QUO
~USES REWARD AND PUNISHMENTS
~ABDICATE RESPONSIBILITY
~AVOID DECISIONS

TRANSACTIONAL LEADERS
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
~VISIONARIES
~EMPOWERING OTHERS
~COMMUNICATE HIGH EXPECTATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE

TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERS
CHARASMATIC LEADERS
~ACT AS ROLE MODELS
~BE CONVINCED OF THE MORAL RIGHTNESS OF HIS/HER BELIEFS.

CHARASMATIC LEADERS
What type of approach is HOLLAND'S RIASEC model?
A TRAIT-ORIENTED APPROACH

HOLLAND'S RIASEC MODEL
CRITERION DEFICIENCY
THE DEGREE TO WHICH A CRITERION MEASURE FAILS TO MEASURE ALL ASPECTS OF THE ULTIMATE (CONCEPTUAL)CRITERION. IT RESULTS IN LOW VALIDITY.

CRITERION DEFICIENCY
NEED HIEARCHY THEORY
MANAGERS = HIGHER LEVEL NEEDS MOST IMPT (E.G. STATUS, ESTEEM)

NON-MANAGERS = LOWER LEVEL NEEDS MOST IMPT (E.G MONEY, SAFETY)

NEED HIEARCHY THEORY
IN ORDER TO USE THE TAYLOR-RUSSELL TABLES TO EVALUATE A NEW SELECTION TEST YOU NEED:
BASE RATE (BR), SELECTION RATIO (SR), AND THE PREDICTORS VALIDITY COEFFICIENT (VC)

FACTORS NEEDED FOR TAYLOR-RUSSEL TABLES TO EVALUATE NEW SELECTION TEST
What was EDGAR SCHEIN's theory of Organizational Culture?
3 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE:

1. OBSERVABLE ARTIFCATS (e.g. dress code)

2. ESPOUSED VALUES & BELIEFS (e.g. norms, goals)

3. The BASIC UNDERLYING ASSUMPTIONS that underlie an Organization's Culture are COGNITIVE DEFENSE MECHANISMS (helps organizational members avoid uncertainty and anxiety)



EDGAR SCHEIN
GOAL-SETTING THEORY
SIMPLE AND LESS COMPLEX TASK, THE STRONGER THE LINK BET GOAL DIFFICULTY AND PRODUCTIVITY

GOAL-SETTING THEORY
JOB TURNOVER LEAST RELATED TO?
JOB PERFORMANCE

LEAST RELATED TO JOB TURNOVER
INCREMENTAL VALIDITY
AN INCREASE IN DECISION-MAKING ACCURACY RESULTING FROM THE USE OF A NEW PREDICTOR.

INCREMENTAL VALIDITY

LOW SR & MOD BR
GOAL ACHIEVEMENT
FEEDBACK THAT IS SPECIFIC IS MORE IMPT THAN FEEDBACK THAT IS GLOBAL IN NATURE.