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34 Cards in this Set

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behavior modification
the application of conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior
extrinsic reinforcers
reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced, such as money prizes, and praise
intrinsic reinforcers
reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced, such as enjoyment of the task and the satisfaction of accomplishment
social-cognitive theories
theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations and beliefs
obserbational learning
a process in which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another (a model) rather than through direct experience (AKA vicarious conditioning)
latent learning
a form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement
learning
a relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) due to experience
behaviorism
an approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the enviornment as a determinant of behavior
conditioning
a basic kind of learning that involves associations between environmental stimuli and the organism's responses
unconditioned stimulus (US)
the classical-conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexive response in the absence of learning
unconditioned response (UR)
the classical-conditioning term for a relexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning
conditioned stimulus (CS)
the classical-conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
the classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus
classical conditioning
the process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response
extinction
the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
higher-order conditioning
in classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus
stimulus generalization
after conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classsical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR
stimulus discrimination
the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR
counterconditioning
in classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response
operant conditioning
the process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences
reinforcement
the process by which a stimulus or even streghtens or increases the probabliity of the response that it follows
punishment
the process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probablility of the response that it follows
primary reinforcer
a stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a physiological need; an example is food
primary punisher
a stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock
secondary punisher
a stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers
secondary reinforcer
a stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforcers
positive reinforcement
a reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the presentation of, or increase in intensity of, a reinforcing stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur
negative reinforcement
a reinforcement procedure in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleastan stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur
discriminative stimulus
a stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence
continuous reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced
intermittent (partial) schedule of reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced
shaping
an operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced
successive approximations
in the operant-conditioning procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing simularity or closeness to the desired response