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176 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acoelomate
without a coelom
Archenteron
The primitive gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing blastula
Asymmetry
lack of symmetry
Bilateral Symmetry
left right symmetry
Binomen
two part name Generic Name and Specific Epithet
Biological Nomenclature
Hierarchical System
Binomen- two part name
Blastocoel
fluid-filled cavity found in the interior of a blastula
Body Cavity
coelom
Cephalization
the tendency in the evolution of animal life for sensory organs, the nervous system, etc. to become centralized in or near the head
Coelom
body cavity
Coelomate/Eucoelomate
containing a coelom
Comparative Biology
Descriptions of organisms (similarities and differences)
Evolution and history of organisms in time
Distributional history of organisms in space
Mesoderm
middle skin
Deuterostomes
coelom forms through evagination of the archenteron into the blastocoel of the embryo
Diploblastic
Ectoderm (ecto= G: outer; derm = G: skin)
Endoderm (endo=G: inner)
Includes: Cnidaria and Ctenophora
Ectoderm
outer skin
Endoderm
inner skin
Enterocoely
coelom forms through evagination of the archenteron into the blastocoel of the embryo
Evolutionary Biology
concerned with the origin of species from a common descent
Germ Layer
Groups of cells that give rise to distinctly different tissue and/or organ systems
Metazoa
multicelled, diploid organisms that develop from a blastula
Over 1 million species (20-50 million more unnamed/undiscovered)
Those with vertebrae – < 5% and makeup a single subphylum of the Phylum Chordata
Those without backbones- >95% and over 30 Phyla
Protostome
coelom formation occurs by gradual enlargement of a split in the mesoderm
Protozoa
unicellular or acellular
Pseudocoelomate
has a pseudocoel
Radial Cleavage
in 8 cell unit cells are aligned
Deuterostomes
Radially Symmetic
no left or right
Schizocoely
coelom formation occurs by gradual enlargement of a split in the mesoderm
Spiral Cleavage
in 8 cell unit cells are not aligned
Protostomes
Systema Naturae
Taxonomic Framework
Triploblastic
three germ layers
ecto endo and meso
Archaeocytes
Responsible for digestion
Give rise to eggs and sperm
Assist in eliminating wastes
Secrete support structures in the mesohyl
Asconoid
simplest sponge
Atrium
large opening of aquiferous system
Calcite
Spicules of calcium carbonate
Carrier Cell
Once spern are captured by collar cells they transform into carrier cells and migrate through mesohyl to oocyte
Choanocyte Chamber
inner chambers of a sponge
Choanocytes
Groups of choanocytes form spermatic cysts
Oocytes produced by transformed choanocytes or archeocytes

Collar Cells
Form Choanoderm
Choanoderm
inner layer of a sponge
Class Calcarea
Spicules of calcium carbonate (calcite)
All body types are represented
All marine
Most are small – less than 10 cm high
Includes Grantia and Leucosolenia
Class Demospongiae
90-95% of all existing sponge species
Possess silica spicules or spongin, or both.
Never calcareous
Includes most freshwater sponges
Family Spongillidae
Includes the boring sponges
Family Clionidae
Includes commercial sponges
Family Spongiidae
Class Hexactinellidae
Glass sponges
Skeleton composed of six sided spicules
Collar
traps food particles
Collar Cells
Generate currents that help maintain water flow
Capture small food particles
Capture sperm for fertilization
Endocytosis
engulfing of some fluid to capture what is in it
Euplectella
Venus’s flower basket
Flagellum
create current
Funnel Cells
collar cells/choanocytes
Gemmules
Spherical mass of archeocytes surrounded by spongin or spicules
Mainly found in freshwater sponges
Resistant to desiccation and freezing
Grantia
in the Class Calcarea
Hippospongia
commercial sponges
Incurrent and Excurrent Canal
incoming goes through the incurrent canal and exiting water leaves through the excurrent canal
Leuconoid
most complex sponge type
Leucosolenia
in the class calcarea
Mesohyl
middle layer with motile cells and skeletal material
Microvilli
form the collar of collar cells
Osculum
water exits the sponge through the oscula
Ostia
water enters the sponge through ostia
Parazoan Grade
metazoan but no germ layering
Pinacocytes
form the outer layer (pinacoderm)
Pinacoderm
outer layer of a sponge
Porocytes
tubular cell with a pore canal or ostium
Sclerocytes
Spicules secreted by Sclerocytes
(calcareous or siliceous)
Spermatic Cysts
Groups of choanocytes form spermatic cysts
Spicules
calcareous or siliceous
Spongia
commercial sponges
Spongicola
Commensal Shrimp of glass sponges
Spongin
collagenous protein secreted by spongocytes
Spongocoel
also known as atrium
Spongocytes
Spongin secreted by Spongocytes (collagenous protein)
Syconoid
not as complex as leuconoid but more complex than asconoid
Totipotent Cells
Totipotency is the ability of a single cell to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism
Transfer choanocyte
carrier cell
"Alternation of Generations"
Two gametes (originating from different organisms of the same species or from the same organism) combine to produce a zygote
Aboral Surface
Exumbrella
Acraspedote
has no velum = acraspedote
Actinula Larvae
free-swimming and resembles a polyp without a stalk
Ahermatypic
Ahermatypic corals do not contain zooxanthellae
Amebocytes
a mobile cell (moving like an amoeba) in the body of invertebrates
Athecate
Hydroids without hyrotheca –but with perisarc
Aurelia
Moon Jellies
Chironex
box jelly genus
Chiropsalmus
box jelly genus
Cnidae
stinging or adhesive structures
Cnidocil
a tiny bristle that projects from the stinging cell of a jellyfish, hydra, or other cnidarian. When stimulated, it triggers the discharge of a coiled stinging thread.
Cnidocyte
Specialized food-capturing cells
mature cnidoblast
stinging cells
Coelenteron
An inner gut sac (coelenteron) lined with gastrodermis
Coenenchyme
The mesagloea surrounding and uniting the polyps in compound anthozoans. Also known as coenosarc.
Coenosarc
The mesagloea surrounding and uniting the polyps in compound anthozoans.

Living tissue under the perisarc
Colloblast
used to capture prey

On contact, vesicles containing a gluey substance rupture, and they stick to the prey.
Collocytes
Adhesive cells
Column
the column of a polyp
Epidermis
ectoderm outer skin
Craspedote
posses a velum
Ctenes
combs used for locomotion
Cydippid
free swimming Ctenophora larvae
Dactylozooids
Defensive polyps
Contain cnidocytes and adhesive cells
Usually close to gastrozoids – help with prey capture
Diploblastic
two germ layers (ectoderm and endoderm)
Epitheliomuscular Cells
Contraction:
Shortens along the oral-aboral axis
Exocytosis
Nematocyst Discharge
Ephyra
swimming larvae of the Scyphozoan
Exumbrella
aboral surface
Gastric filaments
filaments inside the gastric pouch
Gastric Pouches
stomach
Gastrodermis
endoderm
Gastrovascular Cavity
functions in both digestion and the distribution of nutrients to all parts of the body
Gastrozooid
feeding polyp
Glandular Cells
cells which excrete some substance in the body
Gonangium
Reproductive polyps (zooids) that produce medusoids
Gonophore
Reproductive polyps (zooids) that produce medusoids
Gonozooids
Reproductive polyps (zooids) that produce medusoids
Gorgonin
a complex protein that makes up the horny skeleton of the holaxonia suborder of gorgonians.
Hermatypic
are corals that contain and depend upon zooxanthellae (algae) for nutrients.
Hydra
a genus of simple fresh-water animals possessing radial symmetry.
Hydranth
oral end w/tentacles of Hydroids
Hydrocaulus
stalk of a hydroid
Hydrorhiza
root-like anchor of hydroid colonies
Hydrotheca
Perisarc covering the hydranth
Hypostome
tip of the mouth
Interradial Canals
Any of the radially arranged gastrovascular canals in certain jellyfishes and ctenophores.
Manubrium
hypostome or tip of the mouth
Medusa
Occur in all classes except Anthozoa
Far less diverse in form than polyps
Mostly pelagic, some sessile
Most are quadriradial or tetramerous
Mesenteries
divide gastrovascular cavity
Mesoglea
Derived from the ectoderm
Not True Germ Layer
Never produces complex organs
Mouth
single opening in the radiates
Nectophore
swimming members which lack a manubrium. Used for locomotion in some species (not Physalia)
Nematocysts
Are formed by cells called cnidoblasts
Develop from cells in the epidermis
Cnidocyte: mature cnidoblast
Used for prey capture, defense, locomotion and attachment
Nerve Net
nervous system
Nonseptate
gonads are horseshoe shaped and are located on the outer margins of the stomach
Nutritive-muscular cells
Contraction:
Causes elongation along the oral-aboral axis
Obelia
genus of Class Hydrozoa
Ocelli
Photoreceptor cells
Octamerous
having parts in eights
Operculum
lid of a nematocyst
Oral Arms
The oral arms (of which there are usually four) are located around the mouth and hold the stinging cells, or cnidocysts, which are used to inject potential prey (or potential predators) with venom.

Scyphozoans (True Jellies)
Oral Disc
Biradially symmetrical
Radial muscles are used to open the mouth
Oral Surface
Subumbrella of medusa

(side with mouth)
(aboral surface opposite side of mouth)
Pedal Disc
Basal Disc
Perisarc
Chitinous cuticle secreted by the epidermis
Found is most marine species
Peristome
area around mouth
Perradial Canals
one of four branched ciliated canals that originates directly from the stomach of scyphozoan medusae and moves partially digested food materials from the ring canal to the stomach
Pharynx
Mouth →tubular pharynx → gastrovascular cavity
Rhopalium
concentration of neurons (diagnostic)
Contains statocysts, two sensory pits and an ocellus
Physalia
Polypoid:
Gastrozooids
Dactylozooids
Gonozooids
Pneumatophore: gas sac, float into which gas is secreted
Contains carbon monoxide
May be medusa?

Medusoid:
Nectophores: swimming members which lack a manubrium. Used for locomotion in some species (not Physalia)
Gonophores: Gonad-bearing/reproductive medusa

Man O War
Pinule
frilly edge of a pinnate tentacle
Planula Larvae
Radiates typically have a planula larvae (ciliated and motile)
Pneumatophore
gas sac, float into which gas is secreted
Contains carbon monoxide
May be medusa?
Polyp
Occurs in all 4 Classes
Tubular with
An outer epidermis
An inner gut sac (coelenteron) lined with gastrodermis
Layer of jelly-like mesoglea
“Blind Sac” Arrangement
Coelenteron is saclike
Single opening serves as mouth and anus
Ptychocysts
a type of cnida used in tube construction by tube anemones (Ceriantharia). Tube anemones build a tube almost entirely from the everted tubules of the ptychocysts
Quadriradial
fours
Radial Canals
any of the canals extending through the substance of the umbrella from the gastric cavity to the marginal circular canal in jellyfish
Ring Canal
the part of the distributive portion of the digestive system of scyphozoan medusae that is located in the margin of the bell. The ring canal communicates with the radial and adradial canals
Scleroseptum
one of many radiating calcareous partitions in the skeletal cup (corallite) of stony corals
Scyphistoma
planula larvae transforms into a scyphistoma polyp
Septate
gastrovascular cavities have a gonad located on each side of the septa
Siphonoglyph
a groove in the pharynx of some cnidarians that is lined with cilia which pump water into the animal's gastrovascular cavity.This water current inflates the body, circulates fluids, and provides a volume of water to act as a hydrostatic skeleton
Solenia
tubes connecting the gastrovascular cavities
Spirocysts
A type of cnidae defined by a thin, single walled capsule containing a long, spirally coiled, unarmed tubule of uniform diameter.
Stalk
Hydrocaulus
Statocysts
Equilibrium organs
Statolith
gravitational sensor

has the ball inside that rolls when the organism tilts telling it to tilt back
Stolon
connects hydroids
Strobila
Typically small, inconspicuous and trumpet shaped releases ephyra
Strobilation
In Scyphozoan reproduction Scyphisoma undergoes strobilation resulting in a stobila
Stylet
part of a nematocyst that punctures or attaches to prey
Subumbrella
oral surface of a medusae
Symbiodinium
Commonly referred to as zooxanthellae, is a marine microalga commonly found in symbiotic association with a cnidarian host including reef-building corals.
Tetramerous
Having or consisting of four similar parts
Theca
Each polyp secretes a cup-shaped skeleton, the theca, around itself.
Thecate
Hydroids with a hydrotheca surrounding the polyp
Thread
used to fire nematocysts
Tubularia
genus of hydroids
appear to have furry tufts at the end of long strings
Velella
genus of free-floating Hydrozoans that lives on the surface of the open ocean, worldwide, and is commonly known by the names by-the-wind sailor, purple sail, little sail, or simply Velella.
Velum
Helps with jet propulsion
Makes the opening water is forced out smaller creating a strong flow of water
Hydrozoan medusae
Zooid
polyp
Zooxanthellae
Dinoflagellate Symbiodinium
Present in the Gastrodermal Cells
Contribute to Coral Nutrition
Facilitate Calcium Deposition
Aid in the Removal of Metabolic Wastes
phyllozooid
medusae in a colony of cnidaria that serves as a protective bract