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50 Cards in this Set

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Theory X
McGregor's supervisor-centered style. Managers believe that employees are lazy, uncreative, undisciplined, and generally not interested in doing a good job.
This manager micromanages
Theory Y
McGregor subordinate-centered. Management assumes employees may be ambitious, self-motivated, accept responsibility, exercise self-control, self-direction, autonomy and empowerment. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1. Physiological needs
2. Safety needs
3. Social needs
4. Esteem needs
5. Growth needs or
Expectancy Theory
Victor Vroom -
An individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Performance-Reward Attractiveness-How attractive is the reward?
the process of increasing the capacity of individuals or groups to make choices and to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes.
Analytical Problem Solving
The ability to identify and gather relevant information; to and interpret data and to recognize relationships, issues and obstacles to generate alternative course of action.
Technical Competence
The ability to understand and use technical information and to pocess the knowledge relevant to a process or organaization that enable the individual to communicate with technical specialists.
Computer Literacy
The level of facility an individual has with different types of hardware, software and systems.
Negotiation Aptitude
Negotiation Skills.
Capital Budget
The budget for buildings, equipment and other long term assets that are used for the OPERATION of the organization
Zero-Based Budget
A process that does not use past experience to determine future needs. The assumption is that the budget is prepared from scratch, ZERO BASED
Cash-Flow Budget
Links expenditures and cash requirements during the budgetary period. Funds are made available as expenditures are required
Program/Project Budget
often used for not-for-profit and governmental entities
Open-to-Buy Budget
Also called OTB budget, often used in the retail sector
Commodity Segmentation
Dividing an organization's total spend into categories of goods and services; Acquisition-low risklow value
Critical-high risk/low value
Leverage-low risk/high value
Stragtegic-high risk/high value
Before-the-fact controls
Measurable and based on business plans, forecasts, budgets and policies/prodecures
During-the-fact controls
Relate to quality and timing issues (scheduled due date or activity completion dates)
After-the-fact controls
Reviews to measure what actually happened as in audits, periodic reports and procedure reviews
Buying for all sites at a central location. Authority and responsibility is with one central group
Giving each site full authority to conduct all of its purchasing activities
Redesign of processes to reduce cycle time and emphasize value-added activies
Reason for Forms
Purchase price variance
PPV is the difference between the standard price and the actual price paid during a budget period
Periodic Review of Forms
Should be reviewed at least annually
Parity of Authority
Matching the responsibilty with equal authority
Line Relationship
Must be a solid line from person to person on the organizational chart. Line does or directs.
Staff Relationship
Broken line from person to person on the organizational chart. Staff advises.
Span of Control
The number of people a manager supervises
"Flat" Organization
Indicates that one supervisor has a large number of people reporting to him or her
Advantages of promoting from within
1. Tends to keep morale high
2. Stimulates individual performace by offering advancement.
3. Reduces training costs
Disadvantages of promoting from within
1. Results in a chain of lower-level promotions.
2. Produces in-breeding
3. Poor morale due to lack of not being selected
Advantages of recruiting/hiring outside
1. Brings new ideas to the organization
2. Prevents substituting of seniority for management ability
Disadvantages of recruiting/hiring outside
Training may be higher
Federal Civil Rights Acts of 1964 - Title VII
Makes it illegal to discriminate among employees on the basis of race, religion, color, sex or national origin - ALSO INCLUCDES SEXUAL HARASSEMENT
Executive Order 11246 of 1965
Prohibits discrimination in federal employment or an organization that has a government contract of subcontract.
Age Discrimination Act of 1967
Restricts employers of more than 20 employees in the public and private sector from discriminating in the employment and termination of individuals who are over 40 years old.
Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972
EEOA - Provides a series of amendments to Title VII expanding coverage to all organizations with 15 or more employees.
EEOC - Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Has the power to directly file lawsuits against offending organizations and requires organizations to take "affirmative action."
Affirmative Action
Requires employers to take additional steps to attaract, retain, and develop skills of protected group members that the organization has a record of discriminating against.
What determines appraisal factors
Quality of work, Quantity of work, Knowledge of specific job activites, Cooperativeness, Dependability, Initiative, Accuracy, Adaptability and Attitude
Quantitative Factors
Are measurable and are objective
Qualitative Factors
Factors that are subjective
Learn by Doing
The employee is given general guidelines about what needs to be done and teaches themselves the nature of the job.
Sponsor/Mentor System
The assignment of a sponsor or "buddy" to a new employee. Sponsors should be chosen for their experience and teaching ability
Classroom Training
Initial training that consists of a series of brief clasroom courses dealing with team building, organizational culture, regulations, pruchasing processes and related activities.
Functional Rotation
Orientation method where a new employee is rotated through a series of brief assignments, both within purchasing and in other functions.
Job Rotation
A training method that advances an employee through a progressive series of purchasing assignments to gain well-rounded experience.
Professional development is acquired through carefully directed self-training.
Americans with Disability Act
The ADA prohibits discrimiation against people with disabilities. 1) the individual must be able to perform the "essential functions" of the job with or without reasonable accommodations.
Quid Pro Quo
Where a sexual favor is grated in return for some reward, or a refusal is attached to some punishment.