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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is correlational methods?
A mathematical methos of determining whether one variable increases or decreases as another variable increases and decreases. For example, there is a correlation between intelligenece test scores and grades in schools.
What is the scientif method?
THe scientific method is an organized way of using experiences and testing ideas in order to expand and refine knowledge.
In psychology, a specific statement about behaviour or mental processes that is tested through research.
Selection factor
A source od bias that may occur in research findings when subjects are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment ina scientific study.
Repeat, reproduce, copy
To extend from the particular to the general, to apply observations based on a sample to a population.
Part of a population
Random sample
A sample drawn so that each member of a population has equal chances of being selected to participate.
Stratified sample
a sample drawn so that identified subgroup in the popualtion are represented proportionately in the sample. How can stratified sampling be carried out to ensure that a sample represents the ethnic divirsity we find in the population at large
volunteer bais
A source of bais or error in research reflecting the prospect that people who offer to participate in research studies differ systematically from people who do not.
Case study
A carefully drawn biography that may be obtained through interviws, questionnaires and psychological tests.
a metho of scientif investigation in which a large sample of people answer questionsabout their attitudes or behavior.
Naturalistic observation
A scientific method in which organisms are observed in their naturla environments
Correlation coefficient
A number between +1.00 and -1.00 that expresses the strength and direction (postive or negative) of the relationship between two variables.
Postive correlation
A relationship between variables in which one variable increases as the other also increases
Negative correlation
A relationship between two variables in wich one variable increases as the other decreases.
A Scientific method that seeks to confirm cause and rffect relationships by introducing independent variables and observing their effects on dependents variables
In experiments a codition recieved by subject so that its effects may be observed.
Independent variables
A condition in a scientific study that is manipulated so that its effects may be observed
Dependent variables
A measure of an assumed effect of an independent variable
experimental groups
In experiments groups whose members obtain the treatment
Control groups
In experiments, groups whose members do not obtain the treatment, while other conditions are held constant
A bogus treatment that has the appearance of being genuine
In experimental terminology, unaware of whether or not one has recieved a treatment.
Doubled blind study
A study in which neither the subjects nor observer knows who has recieved the treatment