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94 Cards in this Set

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What is bacteria?
Simple celled micro organism that is found everywhere.
Pathogenic bacteria...
Causes disease

i.e. Strep throat, meningitis
What is a virus?
Not a cell - smaller/simpler

Need a host to live

i.e. AIDS, chicken pox
What are protozoa?
Single celled animal amoeba
Free living in fresh/salt water
Eat fungi, bacteria, etc

i.e. malaria
Define fungi
Uni or multi cellular
Decompose organic matter/help recycle nutrients

i.e. mold, mushrooms
Worms are...
Multi cellular
Free living, non pathogenic
Found in soil, dead matter, smaller living things
Genus
First, capitalized, larger
Species
Second, not capitalized, smaller
Normal Flora
Micro organisms that live on and in us
Non-pathogenic
Resident Flora
Live on/in us...nearly everyone almost all the time

Ex. E-coli
Opportunist
Harmless species - can become pathogen in special circumstances
Transient Flora
Found in/on body - micro - not adapted
Can cause harm
Infectious disease
Caused by micro organisms (pathogens) or by products (toxins)
Virulence
Ability of the pathogen to cause disease
Resistance
Body's defense against pathogens
Defenses against pathogens
-Intact skin
-Mucus membrane
-Sweeping cillia
-Adaquet nutrition
-Immunity
Clinical
Measurable signs

Ex. fever
Sub-clinical
No symptoms

Ex. HIV+
Reservoirs
Source of infection
Course of infectious disease
-Incubation
-Prodromal
-Self limiting
Incubation
Before symptoms occur
Prodromal
Vague symptoms

Ex. cold
Self limiting
Lasts a certain length of time
Types of infection
-Localized
-Systemic
-Bacteremia and septicmia
-Acute
-Chronic
-Secondary
-Nosocomial
-Endogenous
Localized Infection
Continued in one area of the body

Ex. throat infection
Systemic Infection
Throughout body

Ex. lymph/blood
Bacteremia and septicmia
Microbes in the blood - large amount
Acute Infection
Begins suddenly - severe

Ex. appendicitus
Chronic Infection
Slow, around for a long time

Ex. Mononucleosis
Secondary Infection
Made possible by a primary infection that has lowered host resistance
Nosocomial Infection
Acquired in hospital/nursing home
Endogenous Infection
Nosocomial infection caused by patient's normal flora
Epidemiology
Study of the patterns and spread of disease within a population
Epidemic
An outbreak of disease
Endemic
Disease that is present in a population with an expected number of cases
Pandemic
Epidemic that will spread to several countries
Portal of Entry
The way pathogens enter the host

-Natural body openings (mouth,anus,vagina,urethra)
-open skin,inhalation,sexual activity
Portal of Exit
The way pathogens leave the body

-Urine, feces, sexual activity, coughing droplets
Reservoirs of Infection
Some can only cause disease in people - disease is residing
Carrier
Carries the disease out

No symptoms
Zoonoses
Carries disease from animals to people
Spread of Infection
*Non-communicable
*Communicable
*Fomite
*Contagious
Non-communicable
Resident species causes disease under certain conditions or in which a non-resident species causes disease when it enters the body
Communicable
Pathogen may be transmitted directly or indirectly from host to host
Fomite
Inanimate object that carries the disease
Contagious
Spreads very easily
Methods to Control of Microbes
-Antiseptics
-Disinfectant
-Bactericide
-Bacteriostatic
Antiseptic
Chemical that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth in a living being (skin surface)
Disinfectant
Chemical that is used on inanimate objects
Bactericide
Kills bacteria by disrupting important metabolic processes
Bacteriostatic
Chemicals do not destroy bacteria - stops reproduction
Sterilization
Process that destroys all living organisms
Autoclave
Chamber in which steam is generated under pressure
Public Health Measures
-Emerging diseases
-Safe food/drinking water
-Prepare defense against use of biological weapons
Pathogens - bacteria
-Prokaryote
-Eucaryote
Prokaryote
No definite organelles

Ex. bacteria
Eucaryote
Definite organelles

Ex. human cell
Classification of Bacteria
-Morphology
-Staining
-Mobility
-Growth
-Atmospheric conditions
-Nutritional requirements
-Biochemical/metabolic activities
-Pathogenicity
-Amino acid sequencing of proteins
Morphology
Classification of bacteria
Staining
Gram +,-

Used to identify bacteria by thickness of cell wall
Mobility
How they move
Growth
How they reproduce
Atmospheric Conditions
Whether it needs oxygen or not
Nutritional Requirements
What it needs to grow/substain life
Biochemical and Metabolic Activities
How fast it grows/reproduces

Ex. toxins/endotoxins
Pathogenicity
Whether or not it causes disease
Amino Acid
Subunit of a protein

C H O N
Capsule
-Seen in bacilli/coccus
-Gelatnous sheath that closes the entire cell
-Inhibits phagocytosis
-Protects bacteria
Spore
-Hard shell

-Allows micro organisms to lay dormant
Toxins
-Chemical produced by
-Harmful to host tissue
-Bacteria produces secretion
Neurotoxins
Special chemicals - harm nerve tissue
Endotoxins
Gram - bacteria

-Causes fever/circulatory shock
-Drop of blood sugar
Rickettsia
-Obligate intracellular parasites
-Reproduce only within living cell of the host parasites of mammals including people
-Spread by anthropod vectors

Ex. lyme disease
Chlamydia
-Sexually transmitted disease
-No symptoms
-Causes sterility
Antibiotics
-Chemicals that inhibit/disrupt chemical reactions of bacteria
-Others stop DNA/protein synthesis
-Damage liver, kidneys, bone marrow
Broad Spectrum
Kills many kinds of bacteria
Narrow Spectrum
Kills specific kinds of bacteria
Resistance
Bacteria are able to produce an enzyme
Culture and Sensitivity Testing
-Lab procedure done before antibiotic is chosen

-Test to grow microbe
Viruses (1)
-Not cells
-Consist of DNA/RNA
-Surrounded by protein shell
-No cytoplasms, enzymes, cell membrane
-Can only reproduce within host
-Causes initial infection, lay dormant, reappear months/years later

Ex. chicken pox to shingles
Viruses (2)
-Identified by protein shell
-Some are self-limiting
-Severity depends on amount of cells affected
-Intracellular parasite
-100's from 1 host
-Some passed through placenta to unborn child
-Few known to be tumors
Antiviral Medications (Treatment Difficult Due To)
-Viruses are active only within cells
-Simple structure - not normal cell
-Use host cells - DNA/enzymes for cell replication

Kills virus, kills DNA of host cell
Zidovudine (AZT)
AIDS - controls - $1,000's/month
Acyclovir
Herpes
Saprophytes
Live on dead, organic material - decompose - recycle chemicals
Pathogenic saprophytes
Cause infection on skin, throughout body
candida Albicans
Resident flora of skin
Pneumocystic Carinii
Pneumonia seen in AIDS victims, not normal system
Coccus
Round shaped cells
Bacillus
Rod-shaped cells
Spirillum
Coiled shells
Strepto
Chains
Staphylo
Clusters
Vector
Carrier