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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anatomical characteristics of parasympathetic nerve fibers
-originates craniosacral
nerve fibers are long preganglionic; short postganglionic
-Ganglia is located in tissue innervated
anatomical characteristics of sympathetic nerve fibers
-originates thoracolumbar
nerve fibers are short preganglionic; long preganglionic
-ganglia is located in two paravertebral chains on either side of spinal column
anatomical characteristics of somatic nerve fibers
only one neuron
ALL autonomic preganglionic neurons are _______.
cholinergic
ALL parasympathetic postganglionic neurons are _______.
cholinergic
MOST sympathetic postganglionic neurons are _________.
adrenergic
The adrenal medulla is a modified _______.
sypathetic ganglion
“Effector” cells are (give 3)
cardiac mm, smoothe mm, gland cells, and sometimes endothelial cells and nerve terminals
Describe biosynthesis of Ach
synthesized in cytoplasm from acetyl-CoA and choline through catalytic action of enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChaT)
storage of Ach
Ach transported from cytoplasm into vesicles by antitransporter that removes protons. A "quanta" of Ach in each vesicle"
release of Ach
dependent on extra cellular Ca2+. When AP reaches terminal and triggers sufficient influx of Ca2+. Vesicles fuse with membrane and spit out Ach.
metabolism of acetylcholine in the cholinergic junction.
Acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) splits Ach into choline and acetate.
biosynthesis of NE
Tyrosine transported into the noradernegic ending by sodium dependent carrier. Tyrosine converted to dopamine which is transported into the vesicle by a carrier. Dopamine is converted to NE in the vesicle by dopamine B hydroxylase.
release of NE
action potential opens voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels and increases intracellular Ca. Vesicles fuse w/ surfuse membrane and results in expulsion of NE.
metabolism of NE
NE diffuses out of cell or is transported into cytoplasm of terminal or postjunctional cell.
parasympathetic presynaptic NT & receptor
Ach;cholinoreceptor (Ach receptor)
parasympathetic postsynaptic NT & receptor
Ach;cholinoreceptor (Ach receptor)
sypathetic presynaptic NT & receptor
Ach;cholinoreceptor (Ach receptor)
Sympathetic postsympathetic NT & receptor
NE; Adrenoreceptors
motor end plate NT & receptor
Ach;cholinoreceptor (Ach receptor)
role and location of (cholinocereptors) Muscarinic M1
CNS

results in formation of IP3 & DAG, increased intracellular Ca
role and location of (cholinocereptors) Muscarinic M2
MYOCARDIUM

FUNCTIONS IN OPENING OF POTASSIUM CHANNELS, INHIBITION OF ADENYL CYCLASE
role and location of (cholinocereptors) Muscarinic M3
smooth muscles and glands

Formation of IP3 & DAG, increased intracellular calcium
role and location of (Adrenoceptors) alpha1 A1
postsynaptic effector cells, especially smooth mm

Formation of IP3 & DAG, increased intracellular CA
role and location of (Adrenoceptors) alpha2 A2
Presynaptic adrenergic nerve terminals (autoreceptors)

Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, decreased cAMP
role and location of (Adrenoceptors) Beta1 B1
heart

Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP
role and location of (Adrenoceptors) Beta2 B2
smooth mm

Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP
role and location of (Adrenoceptors) Beta3 B3
fat cells

Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP
Nicotinic NN
Typical location & result of ligand binding
Postganglionic neurons, some presynaptic cholinergic terminals

Opening of Na+, K+ channels, depolarization
Nicotinic NM
Skeletal muscles neuromuscular end plates

Opening of Na+, K+ channels, depolarization
D1 (DA1) & D5
Brain & smooth muscles of renal vascular bed

Stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP
D2 (DA2)
Brain & smooth muscles of renal vascular bed

Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, decrease cAMP
Local anesthetics, tetrotoxin, saxitoxin
blocks ACTION POTENTIAL PROPAGATION by acting on nerve axons to block sodium channels and thus block conduction.
hemicholinium
prevents TRANSMITTER SYNTHESIS by acting on CHOLINERGIC nerve terminals at the membrane to block the uptake of choline
alpha-methyltyrosine (metyrosine)
prevents TRANSMITTER SYNTHESIS by acting on ADRENERGIC nerve terminals and the adrenal medula at the cytoplasm to block NT synthesis
Vesamicol
prevents TRANSMITTER STORAGE by by acting of the vesicles in CHOLINERGIC TERMINALS
Reserphine
prevents TRANSMITTER STORAGE by by acting of the vesicles in ADERNERGIC TERMINALS
Norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, angiotensin II, various prostaglandins
Effects TRANSMITTER RELEASE by acting on nerve terminal membrane receptors to modulate release
omega-Contoxin GVIA
Reduces TRANSMITTER RELEASE by acting on nerve terminal calcium channels to reduce transmitter release
BOTULINUM TOXIN
Prevents TRANSMITTER RELEASE by acting on CHOLINERGIC vesicles to prevent release
Alpha latrotoxin
Effects TRANSMITTER RELEASE by acting on CHOLINERGIC and ADENERGIC vesicles causing an explosive release of NT
Tyramine, amphetamine
Promotes TRANSMITTER RELEASE by acting on ADRENERGIC nerve terminals to promote transmitter release
Cocaine, Tricyclic antidepressants
Inhibits TRANSMITTER UPTAKE AFTER RELEASE by acting on ADRENERGIC nerve terminals to inhibit uptake and increasing transmitter effect on postsynaptic receptors
6 Hydroxydopamine
Effects TRANSMITTER UPTAKE AFTER RELEASE by destroying ADRENERGIC nerve terminals
Norepenephrine
Causes RECEPTOR ACTIVATION by acting on receptors at ADENERGIC junctions by binding to alpha receptors causing activation
Phentolamine
Causes RECEPTOR BLOCADE by acting on receptors at ADENERGIC junctions by binding to alpha receptors preventing activation
Isoproterenol
Causes RECEPTOR ACTIVATION by acting on receptors at ADENERGIC junctions by binding to beta receptors causing activation of adenylyl cyclase
Propranolol
Causes RECEPTOR BLOCADE by acting on receptors at ADENERGIC junctions by binding to beta receptors preventing activation
Nicotine
Causes RECEPTOR ACTIVATION by binding to receptors at nicotinic CHOLINERGIC junctions (autonomic ganglia, neuromuscular end plates) to bind nicotinic receptors opening ion channels in post synaptic membrane
Tubocurarine
Causes RECEPTOR BLOCKADE by acting on neuromuscular end plates to prevent activation
Bethanechol
Cuaes RECEPTOR ACTIVATION by acting receptors of parasympathetic effector cells (smooth mm, glands) to bind and activate muscarinic receptors
Atropine
Causes RECEPTOR BLOCKADE by acting receptors of parasympathetic effector cells (smooth mm, glands) to bind and inactivate muscarinic receptors
Neostigmine
Prevents ENZYMATIC INACTIVATION OF TRANSMITTER by acting on CHOLINERGIC synapses (acetylcholinesterase) to inhibit enzyme and prolong and intensify transmitter action
Tranylcypromine
Prevents ENZYMATIC INACTIVATION OF TRANSMITTER by acting on ADRENERGIC nerve terminals (monoamine oxidase) to inhibit enzyme; and increase stored transmitter pool
Stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the CIRCULAR (sphincter)of the iris: effect & receptor
contraction - miosis –M3
block of stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the CIRCULAR (sphincter mm)of the iris: effect & receptor
dilation – mydriasis -M3
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the RADIAL smooth mm of the iris (dialator mm): effect & receptor
dilation – mydriasis - alpha1
Block of stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the RADIAL smooth mm of the iris (dialator mm): effect & receptor
contraction - miosis –alpha1
Stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the ciliary body (smooth mm): effect & receptor
contracts – relaxes suspensory ligaments- allows lens to widen – focus for near vision (M3)
Block stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the ciliary body (smooth mm): effect & receptor
cycloplegia inabilidate to accomidate for near vision (M3)
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the ciliary body (smooth mm): effect & receptor
not under sympathetic control
Function of canal of schlemm and results of blockage
drainage of aqueous humor of the eye. If blocked, accumulation of AH results and increase intra ocular pressure. This can cause blindness.
Parasympathetic and sympathetic considerations at the canal of schlemm
Stimulation of cholenergic fibers will increase drainage

If you block Ach, you decrease drainage and glaucoma results.

Beta blockers interfere w/ production of aqueous humor and are bennifiial for glaucoma.
Stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the bladder : effect & receptor
contraction of detrusor mm (bladder wall)--M3, relaxation trigone mm (sphincter)--M3; Result is peeing
Stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the bladder : effect & receptor
urinary retention -- M3
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the bladder : effect & receptor
relax detrusor mm(B2), constrict trigone mm (a1) causes urinary retention
Block stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the bladder : effect & receptor
not too much effect cuz parasymp predominates
Stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the GI tract: effect & receptor
increase GI motility and tone and relaxation of sphincters and increase in secretion of exocrine glands (m3)
Blocked stimulation of Parasympathetic innervation of the GI tract: effect & receptor
constipation (m3)
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the GI tract: effect & receptor
constriction of smooth mm walls - b2, constriction of sphicter a1 - constipation
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the GI tract: effect & receptor
minimal effect – parasymp predominates
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the heart: effect & receptor
increae conduction at SA & AV node, & contraction of ventrical results in increae heart rate -- beta1
Block stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the heart: effect & receptor
decrease conduction and heart rate (e.g., beta blockers)
Stimulation of parasympathetic innervation of the heart: effect & receptor
L vagus nn-av node-receptor decrease HR (m2) , R vagus nn –sa node- decrease HR(m2)-, no fibers to ventricle.
Stimulation of parasympathetic innervation of the blood vessels: effect & receptor
No fibers to blood vessels but some M receptors present
Block stimulation of parasympathetic innervation of the heart: effect & receptor
increase HR increase conduction --M2
_______ innervation predominates in the heart
parasympathetic
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the skin and visceral organ blood vessels: effect & receptor
constriction of blood vessels -- alpha1
Stimulation of sympathetic innervation of the skeletal mm blood vessels: effect & receptor
relaxation of blood vessels -- beta2
List the determinants of blood pressure
??
and describe how the baroreceptor reflex mechanism functions when blood pressure rises or falls
??