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146 Cards in this Set

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chaptalization
adding sugar after fermentation to have it make more alcohol (by fermenting extra sugar)
TCA
chemical involved in cork taint
order for tasting
white -> red
dry -> sweet
light -> heavy
simple -> complex
difference between how whites and reds are made
reds are pressed and crushed with skin and vines (more tannins, color)

reds aged in bottle, whites are not

reds picked later (usually within September-October)
viticultural effects on quality
density of planting, microclimate, soil quality, harvest time, yield
vinicultural effects on quality
type of barrel (oak vs metal), strain of yeast used
various grape components
stalk - provides wood tannin
pits - bitter if broken
pulp - water, volume, acids, fruit flavors, tannins
pectins - colloital distension and usually removed
major components in wine that affect taste, texture, and shelf life
alcohol 7-14.5% (reds have more than whites)
where do they chaptalize a lot?
cooler climates, where the grapes don't ripen fully
cold stabilization
tartaric acid falls out of the wine in cooler conditions, so some wineries will super-chill wine before it leaves the winery to stabilize it before it reaches someone's fridge
acids in wine, and their purpose
tartaric acid
malic acid
lactic acid
citric acid

structure for aging gracefully
crispness and zest
acidification
do it sometimes in hot climates (add acid, usually tartaric)
amelioration
add water and sugar to grapes that are too acidic

water dilutes the acid, sugar increases the alcohol

frowned upon in winemaking community
thin bodied wines
lemony characteristics, but usually subdued

happens when it rains right before harvest, because it pumps grapes full of water
sweetness
body, taste

<.4% sugar is considered dry
skins contribute...
anthrocyanins (color) and tannins

flavor and aging
How does the winemaker shape or adjust various components in wine?
amelioration, chaptalization, types of fermentation
How do we evaluate wines?
look, smell, taste
What are the stages of taste?
attack
evolution
finish
aftertaste
mallolactic fermentation
type of fermentation where bacteria degrade mallic acid into lactic acid
% of alcohol
Brix reading divided by 2, plus 1
Brix reading
measure of suspended solutions in wine
Gewurztraminer
spicy
Sauvignon Blanc
herbaceous, gun metal powder, white fruit, citrus
chardonnay
often oak barrelled

apple, toasty, vanilla, butter, peach, flinty
white wine in development
cooler temps
skins removed
shorter time for fermentation
maceration
process of soaking skins of red grapes in juice to leech the color
addition of sulfur dioxide to the must
kills naturally occurring yeast in grapes
chenin blanc
fruity grassiness, melon, bananas, citrus, celery
must
juice, pulp (including skins for reds)
vatting
pump into tank for fermentation
add yeast
a partial strain of saccharomyces
fermentation
the yeast converts the grape sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol
aging
months or years in:
various types of wood
stainless steel
glass lined tanks
racking
pour from one barrel into another to get rid of sediment at bottom
fining
use egg whites or other protein

strain particles out of wine (proteins, polyphenols)
filtration
gelatin, bentonite

attracts proteins and drag them out of the solution (make it more clear) -- takes some tannins out
Vouvre makes...
Chenin Blanc
chemical stabilization
use a chemical to get tartrate out of wine
malic acid
in Granny Smith apples, aggressive, cool climates
lactic acid
in dairy, softer than malic
fortified wines
have alcohol added in form of brandy to boost their levels as high as 20%
wine components
water, alcohol, acids, sugar, anthrocyanins, tannins, phenols, grape, solids, sulfites, undesireable elements
wine components effects
color, body, texture, aroma, bouquet, taste, aftertaste, storage life
where do they often ameliorate wines?
NY's cooler wine regions
low acidity
flabby, flat taste
correct acidity
crisp, fresh, lively taste
excess acidity
green, harsh, sour taste
water makes up ____ of table wines
85% or more
wines with less than _____ sugar are dry
.4%
resveretrol
antioxidant in wine believed to be effective in lowering cholesterol levels
aging wine colors
white -> darker
red -> more opaque, clearer around edges, less colorful (more muddy)
maderized
nut smelling (sign of bad wine)
aroma
fragrance associated with the grape variety
Phylloxera
root stock louse

1889-1915 in America

vitus-vinifera (had to start growing it on vitus-lebrusca using grafting)
sauvignon blanc characteristics
grassy, herbaceous, bell pepper, gun metal powder, green olive, black pepper, grapefruit**, fig
bouquet
fragrances developed in the wine making and aging process
wood influence
vanilla, toasty, smoky, spice, butter, coconut
mission grapes
1770 in California
brought grapes from Spain(?) and planted them
oxidized effect
bland (loss of flavor)
maderized
cooked-sherry like with nutty flavors
corked (TCA)
musty, moldy
sulfur dioxide
stinging sensation (in the nasal passage)
hydrogen sulfide
rotten eggs
mercaptans
essence of skunk and rotting cabbage
regions of NY
Concord and Niagra (by Lake Erie)

Hudson Valley good for hybrids because of shorter growing season

Niagra
NY wine labels
vinifera must contain 75%, labrusca only 51%, AVA's are 85%, statewide
Oregon wine labels
90% varietal except cabernet sauv which is 75% because they may need to be blended

100% region
native grapes of North America
Vitis Labrusca, Vitis Riparia, described as "foxy" - methyl anthrialate
geographic factors in CA
Pacific Ocean, cooler up north and by water
geographic factors in NY
Finger Lakes are a temperature buffer, cool in the spring so they don't bud early, stay warm late
signature grapes of WA
Merlot, Cabernet, Syrah, Chardonnay
signature grapes of CA
Chardonnay, Chenin Blanc, Sauv Blanc
signature grapes of OR
Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Chard, Riesling, Syrah
WA labels
no generics, 75% varietal,

reserve = best wines up to 10% or 3000 cases
Jean Louis Vignes
brought Cabernet from Bourdeaux
Augustin Harazsthy
brought cuttings from Europe for Buena Vista winery in Sonoma
AVAs for CA
Napa, Sonoma, Carneros, Mendocino
climate in WA
rain blocked by Cascades
AVAs for WA
Walla Walla, Columbia Valley, Columbia Gorge
vin de table
table wine
vin de pays
country wine (better than table wine)
Oregon varietal percentages
90%, except cab sauv which is 75% (needs to be blended, cuz its strong)
All states but Oregon, varietal percentages
must be 75%
qualities of French wines available
vin de table, vin de pays, vin de quality superior, AOC
AOC
"Appellation of Origin Controle
- checks the quality of French wines
- you want to be the best so you can sell for a higher price
- you can't be demoted after you get AOC standing"
what AOC regulates
yield, type of grapes in region, place of origin, and methods of winemaking, harvest dates
what assurances does AOC offer the consumer?
not the quality, but techniques and authenticity
differences between US AVA system and French AOC
US establishes only boundaries of AVAs (doesn't link grape types and methods for region)
terroir
personality of the winemaker, climate, environment, feeling, culture, everything that goes into the wine
who monitors the AOC system?
AOC and VDQS fall under EU's QWPSR, and then vins fall under general tablewine regulations
classifications of Alsace wines
mostly white wines (including Gewurtz, Chenin Blanc, Rieslings, Pinot Blanc, Sylvaner, Pinot Gris (Pinot Grigio)
Gewurtz flavors
spicy, honey, rose
Riesling flavors
white fruits, apricot, peach, apples, citrus
Muscadet flavors
apple, pear, fresh, non-oaked
Muscadet is in the _______ region of the ____________
West; Loire Valley
Vouvray is in the ________ region of the ___________
East; Loire Valley
only red of Alsace
Pinot Noir
what terms on an Alsace label are meaningful?
varietal label 100%; 3 sub-AOCs
edelzwicker
controlled term for blend of pinot blanc, sylvaner, pinot gris, and riesling
Appellation Cremant d'Alsace
sparkling wine, 13% of production
Grand Cru
"high end wines
best of the best
limited to types of grapes grown and the vineyard you can grow it in"
controlled label terms (Alsace)
edelzwicker, vendange tardive, selection de grains nobles
vendange tardive
late picked, full bodied grapes
Selection de Grains Nobles
Botrytis affected grapes produce a rare sweet wine (noble rot)
noncontrolled label terms
reserve, personnelle, cuvee, special
reserve (in the US) has special meaning in…
Washington; best 10% or 3000 cases of wine
historical influences on Alsace wines
Caesar started viticulture in 58 BC; exported in 15th century;1870 Germans took over Alsace, blended Alsace wines to boost their own
climate influences in Alsace
Vosges Mountains block cold winds, keep a very dry climate (less than 20 inches a year) - long cool growing season, so white grapes can produce more aromas and sugaryness; narrow region (2 mi wide)
winemaking practices unique to Loire
large barrels, use tartrate to line the vessels so it doesn't touch the wood - "sur lie" - happens in CA too - barrelled on the lies (with the yeast in it - gets extra flavor)
major grape varieties grown in Loire
Melon de Bourgogne (racy, refreshing Muscadet), Chenin Blanc, Sauv Blan); reds: cabernet franc, gamay noir a jous blanc, pinot noir, grolleau
sur lie
large barrels, use tartrate to line the vessels so it doesn't touch the wood - happens in Loire and CA
sec
dry
demi sec
off-dry
molleoux
semi-sweet
doux
sweet
Chenin Blanc
melon, banana, apple, citrus, lemon
labelling requirements for Loire Valley
made and bottled on property (estate bottled) - grower, producer, bottler
nis en boutilles par
bottled by or for (sourced, blended)
nis en boutilles a la propriete / a domine
producer grower bottler
geography of Loire
limey soil; Atlantic to east and Loire river
positive health related issues of moderate beverage consumption
resveretrol (cholesterol reduction), antioxidants, prevents heart disease
negative health related aspects of abusive
liver problems (cirrhosis), sleep issues, hurts memory/thinking/motor skills
how many drinks recommended?
2 for men, 1 for women
signs of dependency
can't go without it, sacrificing of activity for more drinking, times at which you're drinking
legal issues with respect to consumption and service of alcohol
minors, DUI/DWI
societal issues
drinking age, alcoholism, families and cultural drinking, shaming, binge drinking
physiological effects of consuming various quantities
intellectual, emotional, motor, semivoluntary, vital
impact of tolerance
need to drink more to get buzz
how is alcohol processed in the body
alcohol dehydrogenase breaks it down (1 drink per hour, approximately)
does heredity, gender, and body size have an effect?
yes
anthrocyanins
give it color (from the skin)
Vouvre's primary wine
Chenin Blanc
types of Chenin Blanc
sec, demi sec, moulleaux, doux
Franc
did the cold stuff... figured out you could grow vinifera in NY
Fourier
figured out you could graft to save from the root louse
Mondavy
broke from his parents' vineyard and made his own vineyard; believed that CA wines could beat French wines
sur lie gives a __________ to Muscadet
minerally taste
Sauvignon Blanc tastes
fresh grass, grapefruit
Viognier flavors
tropical, guava, acacia
Muscadet flavors
apple, pear, fresh, minerally, acidic, citrusy
Chenin Blanc from....
Loire
Pinot Noir flavors
earthy, chocolate, strawberries
Zinfandel
jammy
Merlot
cherry, earthy
Cab Sauv
ton o tannin; herbaceous (stems and leaves, tea); bell pepper; black pepper