Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/46

Click to flip

46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
NAME FIVE PARTS FOR THE STRUCTURE OF VIRUSES
1-SIZE AND MORPHOLOGY
2-CAPSID
3-ENVELOPE
4-COMPLEX
5-NUCLEIC ACID
NAME TWO MAJOR STRUTURES OF VIRUSES
1- NAKED NUCLEOCAPSID VIRUS
2- ENVELOPED VIRUS
CAPSID
THE PROTEIN COVERING OF A VIRUS'S NUCLEIC ACID CORE
NAME TWO TYPES OF CAPSIDS
1- HELICAL
2- ICOSAHEDRAL
HELICAL
NUCLEOCAPSID IS RIGID AND TIGHLY WOUND INTO A CYLINDER- SHAPED PACKAGE
ICOSAHEDRAL
THREE- DIMENSIONAL, 20 SIDED WITH 12 EVENLY SPACED CORNERS
GIVE A EXAMPLE OF A HELICAL CAPSID
NAKED- TOBACCO MOSAIC

ENVELOPED- INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RABIES
GIVE A EXAMPLE OF A ICOSAHEDRON CAPSID
POLIO
ADENOVIRUS
ENVELOPE
A VIRUS WHOSE NUCLEOCAPSID IS ENCLOSED BY A MAMBRANE DERIVED IN PART FROM THE HOST CELL. IT USUALLY CONTAINS EXPOSED GLYCOPROTEIN SPIKES SPECIFIC FOR THE VIRUS
WHAT IS THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CAPSID/ENVELOPE
PROTECTS NUCLEIC ACID FROM THE HOST'S ACID AND PROTEIN- DIGESTING ENZYMES AND ASSIST IN BINDING AND PENERATING HOST CELL AND STIMULATE THE HOST IMMUNE SYSTEM
COMPLEX VIRUSES
STRUTURE IS MORE INTRICATE THAN HELICAL AND ICOSAHEDRAL VIRUSES
BACERIOPHAGE
A VIRUS THAT SPECICFICALLY INFECTS BACTERIA. INJECTS THEIR NUCLEIC ACID INTO THE BACTERIA
NAME THREE DISTINTIONS OF VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID
1- EITHER DNA OR RNA
2- POSSES ONLY THE GENES TO INVADE & REGULATE THE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF HOST CELLS
3- NO VIRAL METABOLIC GENES, AS THE VIRUSE USES THE HOST METABOLIC RESOURCES
EXAMPLES OF RETROVIRUSES
HIV
HOW ARE VIRUSES CLASSIFIED
STRUCTURE
CHEMICAL COMPOSTION
GENETIC MAKEUP
HOST RELATIONSHIP
TYPE OF DISEASE
6 STEPS OF MULTIPLICATION
1- ADSORPTION
2- PENETRATION
3- UNCOATING
4- SYNTHESIS
5- ASSEMBLY
6- RELEASE
ADSORPTION
A PROCESS OF ADHERING ONE MOLECULE ONTO THE SURFACE OF ANOTHER MOLECULE. VIRUS ATTACHES TO THE HOST CELLS SURFACE
PENETRATION
THE CELL ENGULFS THE ATTACHED VIRUS BY ENDOCYTOSIS
UNCOATING
THE HOST CELL FREES THE VIRAL NUCLEIC ACID INTO THE CELLS CYTOPLASM
SYNTHESIS
THE HOST CELL READS THE NUCLEIC ACID
ASSEMBLY
AFTER THE NUCLEIC ACID HAS BEEN SYTHESISED THE HOST CELL BUILDS MORE VIRUSES OF THE SAME TYPE
RELEASE
A COMPLETED ENVELOPED VIRUSES IS RELEASED AND READY TO INFECT ANOTHER CELL
CYTOPATHIC EFFECT
THE DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN CELLS ASSOCIATED WITH VIRAL INFECTIONS.
NAME 4 TYPES OF CYTOPATHIC EFFECTS
1- INCLUSION BODIES
2- SYNYTIA
3- CHRONIC LATENT STATE
4- TRANSFORMATION
INCLUSION BODIES
COMPACT MASSES OF VIRUSES
SYNCYTIA
FUSING OF CELLS TOGETHER
CHRONIC LATENT STATE
VIRUS IN CELLS, BUT NOT ACTIVE, CAN BE ACTIVATED AGAIN
EXAMPLE HERPES
TRANSFORMATION
A OVERGROWTH OF VIRAL CELLS CAN CAUSE CANCER
LYSOGENY
WHEN BACTERIOPHAGE CAN INSERT ITS DNA INTO THE BACTERIAL HOST GENOME
WHY IS IT HARD TO GROW VIRUSES
VIRUSES REQUIRE A HOST CELL TO GROW
IN VIVO
USING A LIVE HOST CELL-
EMBROYONIC BIRD TISSUSE
IN VITRO
OUTSIDE A LIVING ORGANISM- CELL OR TISSUE CULTURE
SAPROBIC
A MICROBE THAT DECOMPOSES ORGANIC REMAINS FROM DEAD ORGANISMS
PARASITIC
AN ORGANISM THAT LIVES IN OR ON ANOTHER ORGANISM, FROM WHICH IT OBTAINS NUTRIENTS AND ENJOYS PROTECTION
HALOPHILES
SALT LOVING
OBLIGATE HALOPHILE
NEEDS SALT TO GROW
WHAT IS USED TO DEMONSTRATE OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS
THIOGLYCOLLATE BROTH
GENEOTYPE
THE SUM OF ALL GENE TYPES
PHENOTYPE
EXPRESSION OF THE GENOTYPES
ANTIBIOTIC
ONE ORGANISM GROWN TO DESTROY ANOTHER ORGANISM
ANTIMICROBIAL
A SPECIAL CLASS OF COMPOUNDS CAPABLE OF DESTROYING OR INHIBITING MICROORGANISMS
AMES TEST
A METHOD OF DETECTING MUTAGENIC AND POTENTIALLY CARCINOGENIC AGENTS BASED UPON THE GENETIC ALTERATIONS OF NUTRITIONALLY DEFECTIVE BACTERIA. WITHOUT USING LIVE ANIMALS
RECOMBINATION- NAME THREE STEPS
SHARING PARTS OF VIRUSES GENOME
1- CONJUGATION
2-TRANSFORMATION
3- TRANSDUCTION
CONJUGATION
TRANSFERS PLASMID DNA FROM A F+ CELL TO A F- CELL BY WAY OF A PILUS
TRANSFORMATION
FREE DNA IS PICKED UP BY A CELL
TRANSDUCTION
BACTERIOPHAGE INFECT HOST CELL

SERVE AS THE CARRIER OF DNA FROM A DONOR CELL TO A RECIPIENT CELL