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### 15 Cards in this Set

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 variation Variation reflected in a data set is the difference among the data values. range The distance between the largest and smallest data values is called the range of a data set: Range = the largest value (maximum) - the smallest value (minimum) mean absolute deviation a more efficient measure of dispersion that utilizes all data values deviation The difference between a data value and the sample mean is called the deviation of that data value: Deviation of a data value = the data value - the sample mean n sample size absolute deviation The absolute values of the deviations, naturally called absolute deviations, are the unsigned distances from the data values to the sample mean. Σ sum mean absolute deviation (MAD) the sum of all the absolute deviations / the number of data values s the sample standard deviation sample standard deviation square root of: the sum of the squares of the deviation / n-1 shortcut formula for standard deviation square root of: n(the sum of the squares of the data values)-(the sum of the data values)squared / n(n-1) The Empirical Rule If the distribution of the data is bell-shaped, then 1. Approximately 68% of the observations will be within one standard deviation of the mean. 2. Approximately 95% of the observations will be within two standard deviations of the mean. 3. Approximately 99.7% of the observations will be within three standard deviations of the mean. μ population mean the sum of all the observations in the population / N N= the number of elements in a population σ population standard deviation position of the kth percentile (n+1)k / 100