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43 Cards in this Set

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Dyslexia
A reading disability
Federal Definition
"specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written
Disorders Include
perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, developmental aphasia
Disorders Not Included
a learning problem that does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage
RTI
Response to Intervention: way of determining whether a student has a learning disability; increasingly intensive levels of instructional intervention are delivered, and if the student does not achieve, at some point, he or she is determined to have a learning disability or is referred for special education evaluation
Achievement Ability Discrepancy
Academic performance markedly lower than would be expected on the basis of a student's intellectual ability
Primary Prevention
first tier, based on growing complaints from researchers and policy makers: teaching disability
CBM (curriculum Based Measurement):
formative evaluation method designed to evaluate performance in the curriculum to which students are exposed; usually involves giving students a small sample of items from the curriculum in use in their schools; proponents argue that CBM is preferable to comparing students with national norms or using tests that do not reflect the curriculum content learned by the students
Progress Monitoring
brief, frequent measures of performance used to determine whether a student is learning as expected; if student isn't learning as expected, the teacher can make changes to the instruction
Prevalence
5-6% with learning disabilities
Genetic Factors
tendency for learning disabilities to run in families
Academic Achievement Problems
if there is no academic problem, a learning disability does not exist
Phonemic Awareness
understanding that speech consists of small units of sound, such as words, syllables, and phonemes
Testing Accommodations
Extended time & small groups
Perseveration
a tendency to repeat behaviors over and over again; often found in people with brain injury, as well as those with ADHD
ADHD
most authorities estimate that from 3-7% of the school-age population have ADHD, more frequent in boys
Other Health Impaired
ADHD: eligible for special education
4 compounds
medical exam, clinical interviews, teacher & parent rating scale, behavioral observation
Executive functions
prefrontal lobes: two lobes in the very front of the frontal lobes; responsible for executive functions; site of abnormal development in people with ADHD
Adaptive Skills
needed to adapt to one's living environment, usually estimated by an adaptive behavior survey; one of two major components of the AAMR definition
Socializing
students with ADHD are rejected more often by their peers, have fewer close friends, and are disliked by students who enjoy high social status
Prevalence
Long lasting prevalence (life)
Nonresponders
30% do not respond to ritalin
EDBD
unable to attach: aren't typically good at making friends
Current definitions
behavior that goes to extremes
problem that is chronic
behavior that is unacceptable b/c of social or cultural expectations
Conduct disorder
characterized by overt, aggressive, disruptive behavior or covert antisocial acts such as stealing, lying, and fire setting; may include both overt and covert acts
Schizophrenia
characterized by psychotic behavior manifested by loss of contact with reality, distorted thought processes, and abnormal perceptions
How many kids exhibit serious and persistent emotional/behavioral problems
6-10%: only serve 1%
Causes
biological, pathological, undesirable experiences, negative cultural: unusual to find a single cause
Path to success at school
supportive family, safe neighborhood, and good schools
leads to development of adaptive behavior
produces positive short-term outcomes
to positive, adaptive long-term outcomes
Identification
conduct disorder attracts immediate attention
Service delivery
outside regular classrooms (danger to students)
Transition
difficult to design special education programs because students with emotional or behavior disorders are varied
Kanner's Paper
Asperger: an inability to relate to others in an appropriate manner
Echolalia
parroting repetition of words or phrases either immediately after they are heard or later; often observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorders
Autism Spectrum Disorders
five similar conditions: autism, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified; all involve varying degrees of problems with communication skills, social interactions, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior
Characteristics
1. communication skills
2. social interactions
3. repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior
Asperger
a milder form of autism without significant impairments in language and cognition; characterized by primary problems in social interaction
Rett Syndrome
normal development for five months to four years, followed by regression and intellectual disabilities (mental retardation); much more prevalent in females
Refrigerator Mom
unresponsive mothers, once used to refer to mothers of children with autism
Cause of autism spectrum disorders
neurological
What are the chances of one family member having autism if another family member has it?
50-200 times
When is autism noticed/diagnosed?
3 - 5 years