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175 Cards in this Set

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the pracitce of selecting mates from outside one's group
Exogamy (heterogamy)
the practice of selecting mates from within one's group
Endogamy (homogamy)
a socially approved mating relationship that people expect to be stable and enduring
Marriage
cultural norms and laws that forbid sexual intercorse between close blood relatives, such as brother and sister, father and daughter, or uncle and niece
Incest Taboo
a form of family consisting of married parents and their biological or adopted children
Nuclear Family
a family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin, such as uncles and aunts, nieces and nephews, cousins, and grandparents
Extended Family
newly married couples live with the husband's family
Patrilocal Residence Pattern
newly married couples live with the wife's family
Matrilocal Residence Pattern
each newly married couple sets up its own residence
Neolocal Residence Pattern
young adults who move back into their parents' home after living independently for a while or who never leave it in the first place
Boomerang Generation
the oldest females (usually grandmothers and mothers) control cultural, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over males
Matriarchal Family System
the oldest men (grandfathers, fathers, and uncles) control cultural, political, and economic resources and, consequently, have power over females
Patriarchal Family System
both partners share power and suthority fairly equally
Egalitarian Family System
a process in which prospective spouses compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners and choose the best available mate
Marriage Market
one person is married exclusively to another person
Monogamy
individuals marry several people, but one at a time
Serial Monogamy
a marriage in which a man or woman has two or more spouses
Polygamy
the legal dissolution of a marriage
Divorce
state laws that do not require either partner to establish guilt or wrongdoing on the part of the other to get a divorce
No-Fault Divorce
a household in which two adult are biological or adoptive parents, with a child from a prior relationship, who marry or cohabit.
Stepfamily
an arrangement in which two unrelated people are not married but live together and have a sexual relationship
Cohabitation
both partners are employed outside the home
Dual-Earner Couples (also called dual income, two-income, two-earner, or dual-worker couples)
nonrelatives who are accepted as part of an African American family
Fictive Kin
reasoning that begins with a theory, prediction, or general principle that is then tested through data collection
Deductive Resoning
reasoning that begins with a specific observation, followed by data collection and the development of a general conclusion or theory
Inductive Reasoning
the steps in the research process that include careful data collection, exact measurement, accurate recording and analysis of the findings, thoughtful interpretation of results, and, when appropriate, a generalization of the findings to a larger group
Scientific Method
a sample for which each person (or thing, such as an e-mail address) has an equal chance of being selected because the selection is random
Probability Sample
a sample for which little or no attempt is made to get a representative cross section of the population
Nonprobability Sample
a group of people or things that are representative of the population researchers wish to study
Sample
research that examines nonnumerical material and interprets it
Qualitative Research
research that focuses on a numerical analysis of people's responses or specific characteristics
Quantitative Research
data collected by systematically observing people in their natural surroundings
Field Research
data collection method that systematically examines some form of communication
Content Analysis
research that relies on all of the standard data collection techniques to assess the effectiveness of social programs in both the public and the private sectors
Evaluation Research
the group of subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
Control Group
the tangible objects that members of a society make, use, and share
Material Culture
the shared set of meanings that people in a society use to interpret and understand the world
Nonmaterial Culture
a society's specific rules concerning right and wrong behavior
Norms
norms that members of a society (or a group within society) look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment
Folkways
norms that members of a society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior
Mores
rewards for good or appropriate behavior and/or penalties for bad or inappropriate behavior
Sanctions
customs and practices that are common to all societies
Cultural Universals
the actual everyday behavior of people in a society
Real Culture
the beliefs, values, and norms that people in a society say they hold or follow
Ideal Culture
the belief that one's culture and way of life are superior to those of other groups
Ethnocentrism
the belief that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards
Cultural Relativism
the coexistence of several cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another
Multiculturalism (cultural pluralism)
the influence or domination of the cultural values and products of one society over those of another
Cultural Imperialism
the consistency of various aspects of society that promotes order and stability
Cultural Integration
the gap when nonmaterial culture changes more slowly than material culture
Cultural Lag
key points: similar beliefs bind people together and create stability; sharing core values unifies a society and promotes cultural solidarity
Functionalist Theory (MACRO)
key points: culture benefits some groups at the expense of others; as powerful economic monopolies increase world-wide, the rich get richer and the rest of us get poorer
Conflict Theory (MACRO)
key points: women and men often experience culture differently; cultural values and norms can increase inequality because of gender, race/ethnicity, and social class
Feminist (MICRO and MACRO)
key points: cultural symbols forge identities (that change over time); culture (such as norms and values) helps people merge into a society despite their differences
Symbolic Interactionist Theory
the lifelong process of social interaction in which the individual acquires a social identity and ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that are essential for effective participation in a society
Socialization
the process of learning cultural behaviors and expectations so deeply that we assume they are correct and accept them without question
Internalization
approaches whose central notion is that people learn new attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors through social interaction, especially during childhood
Social Learning Theories
a self-image based on how we think others see us
Looking-Glass Self
an awareness of one's social identity
Self
learning to take the perspective of others
Role Taking
the people who are important in one's life, such as parents or other primary caregivers and siblings
Significant Others
the process of learning how to perform a role one doesn't yet occupy
Anticipatory Socialization
The Three Ds
dirty, dangerous, degrading
dominant, strong, capable, wealthy, power, violence is not necessarily bad, white
Hegemonic Masculinity
the desire to move north because the grass is greener up north
Northern Effect
sociology was known as social physics until he coined our term; he thought this study would be the most important of all sciences; he applied the scientific method to sociology; the coined the term Positivism (applying the scientific method; he used observation, experimentation and comparison; he was empirical (experimentation instead of intuition); father of sociology;
Comte
wrote the "Communist Manifesto"; bourgeois (capitalists, the haves), and proletariat (workers, the have nots); angry that people had to work according to skills instead of desires; father of sociology; studied capitalism, class conflict and alienation; believed economics was central force of society; not able to get his message out and Charles Dickens had similar ideas but won his fame
Karl Marx
disagreed with Marx that economic was central, but argued that religion was central; he wrote "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism;" he coined "Verstenhen"-German word for "to understand"-to interpret and understand the social world through experience; foundation for "interpretive sociology," which is the study of social meaning; coined "value-free"-you can't be biased in scientific research, but much separate personal values and opinions; father of sociology
Max Weber
wanted to see how social foces affect people's behavior; 1st sociology professor; he compared suicide rates of several European countries; "Social Facts"-aspects of social life that can be measured by the individual, ex: Protestants vs. Catholics, women vs. men, married vs. unmarries; he found highest rates of suicide in unmarried, Protestand men because they may not be very socially connected; conclusion: social integration was one of the main social factors of suicide; he was a founder practitioner of positivist sociology; father of sociology; wanted sociology to be seen as a separate academic discipline; studied social factors and integration
Emilie Durkheim
translated Comte's work into English; was a sociology writer and was supposed to be feminine and would hide her work under her knitting when someone would enter the room; wrote "society in America;" she is known for her translation mainly
Harriet Martineau
noticed poor hosues and founded the Hull House, which offered medical care, child care, classes for immigrants and the arts- community centers for the poor; she also campaigned for women's suffrage and NAACP for colored people and won 1st women's Nobel Peace Prize
Jane Addams
got PHD from Harvard; researched African Americans in Philadelphia; wrote The Philadelphia Negro; first African American to be invited to present at ASA (American Sociological Association); co-founded NAACP with Jane Addams; he looked at race/was a race scholar; coined the term "double consciousness"-the ideal/perspective of yourself vs. what society thinks of you; he grew up elite and was considered accepted in the North until he moved to the South and was viewed differently; he then had to deal with double consciousness; viewed by some as a father of American sociology
W.E.B. Dubois
urged sociologists to focus on social REFORM; sparked interest in social activism; coined term "sociological imagination"- the ability to see the sociological patterns that influence the individual and group life; warned against the "power elites"- the top leaders of business, politics and the military; was from Texas; not considered a father of sociology
C. Wright Mills
man who focused on social reform
Mills
man who focused on social factors
Durkheim
man who focused on race
Dubois
man who focused on religion
Weber
man who focused on economics
Marx
is about social classes and economics, NOT about communism; Marx is not a communist or a Marxist
"The Communist Manifesto"
a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; and explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
Theory
examines large-scale and broader aspects of society; ex. social class; the functionalist and conflict theories mainly and partly feminist
Macrosociology
studies maybe why people act this way in a particular situation; ex. symbolic interactionism and partly feminist theory
Microsociology
functions that are unintended or unrecognized; ex. not having to study as much since you took notes
Latent Functions
functions that are intended or recognized; ex. taking notes in class
Manifest Functions
the theory that varioues social institutions and processes in society exist to serve some important/necessary function to keep society running; macrosociological
Functionalist Theory
shared meaning orientations and assumptions form the basic motivation behind people's actions; it's microsociological
Social Interactionist Theory
the idea that conflict between competing interests is the basic animating force of social change and society in general; named by Karl Marx; Macrosociological
Conflict Theory
approaches that try to explain social, economic and political positions of women in society with a view to freeing women from traditional expectations, constraints, roles and behaviors; micro and macrosociological
Feminist Theory
meshes characteristics like gender and race or male and female to research
Intersectional Theory
a book written about how people misclassify the races, like Native Americans being confused as Hispanic; this gives a negative effects on the people's self esteem and creates defensiveness
Implications of Racial Misclassification of Observers
a book about interracial friendships which said that asians and hispanics are more likely to be friends with other races
Beyond Black and White
the effort to reduce uncertainty about some aspect of the society through the science of observation
Scientific Research
in an experiment, this can change in magnitude or value
Variable
How to Research
1. select a topic, 2. define the problem, 3. review the literature of it, 4. formulate a hypothesis, 5. choose a research method, 6. collect the data, 7. analyze the results, 8. share the results
a data collection method full of questionairres and interviews; strengths: can be inexpensive, easy to administer, fast turn around, easy to acquire sensitive information; weaknesses: low response rate, possibility of inaccurate information
Surveys
a data collection method that examines the data collected by someone else; includes historical materials, public records and official statistics; strengths: convenient and inexpensive; weaknesses: may not have the information you need
Secondary Analysis
a data collection method where they are participating in a research setting in order to observe what's happening in that setting; Jankowski studied 37 gangs; we need to separate gangs from other collected people crimes; "Defiant Individual first characteristic"- independent, survival instinct, isolated, survival of the fittest; saw importance of "organizational principles"-gang is composed of defiant individuals; strengths: in-depth understanding, flexible, ideally doesn't disrupt the subjects; weaknesses: sometimes can be expensive and dangerous; little control over the data
Participant Observation
data collection method that systematically OBSERVES people in their natural surroundings; strenths: depth understanding, flexible, not disrupting the subjects; weaknesses: can be expensive/dangerous and there's little control over the data
Field Research
the association between two variables
Correlation
a set of beliefs, traditions and practices, learned, taught, shared and always changing
Culture
man who coined the term "ethnomethodology," is a method for understanding the social orders people use to make sense of the world through analyzing their accounts and descriptions of their day-to-day experiences
Harold Garfinkel
a group or category of people who distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting differ somewhat from the larger societyl ex. Quakers, third genders, polygamists
Subculture
a belief that one's own culture and way of life are superior to any others
Ethnocentrism
a belief that no culture is better than another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards
Cultural Relativism
anything that stands for something else and has a particular meaning for people who share a culture; ex. apple pie, American flag
Symbols
the coexistence of several cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating the other
Multicultural (cultural pluralism)
the beliefs, practices, activities and products that are widely shared among a population in everyday life
Popular Culture
form of communication designed to reach large numbers of people
Mass Media
the gap when nonmaterial culture changes more slowly than material culture
Cultural Lag
Early Magazine Ideal
married male, white, suburbs, cigarettes, church, two children, work and have a wife at home
African Americans unable to meet hegemonic masculinity; lower SES, agressive status
Cool Poise
a system that enabled Hispanics to work during WWII, around 1942-1964, and fed and payed them to fill jobs from war, and it was not necessarily fair; it created a dependence on foreign workers
Bracero Program
a term that refers to the advantages people enjoy due to their race
White Privilege
What are women's 2nd and 3rd shifts?
2nd-household labor/childcare, 3rd-family ties (ex. b-day parties or cards)
Theoretical Perspectives on Racial-Ethnic Inequality
Functionalist-prejudice and discrimination can be dysfunctional, but they provide benefits for dominant groups and stabilize society; Conflict-powerful groups maintain their advantages and perpetuate racial-ethnic inequality primarily through economic exploitation; Feminist-minority women suffer from the combined effects of racism and sexism; Symbolic Interactionist-hostile attitudes toward minorities, which are learned, can be reduced through cooperative interracial and interethnic contacts
Concerns for the Family
1. Birth control, 2. children born out of welock, 3. reform of the divorce laws, 4. women in the workforce (said in the 1860s and still active today)
Changes in Marriage
1. Colonial time-women were recognized as contributors to household, 2. 1800's-most middle class women helped with the income, 3. 1950's- modern marriage enters culture (the ideal is that the husband works and wife stays at home)
What type of male (race and SES) will be more likely to help his wife out with the household chores?
African American males of lower SES
Arrange races in order of highest births to unmarried women to lowest
African Americans, American Indians, Latinas, White, Asian Americans
Do white, hispanic or black women feel the need to marry early?
White, because the others may struggle/desire to be financially stable first
the book by Kathryn Edin and Maria Keflas that explained that different SES groups see unmarried committment and children differently; ex. low SES=kid saved me and demonstrates committment, high SES=kid inhibited my success and it doesn't necessarily mean committment
Unmarried with Children
What do low-income single mothers say about marriage? by Kathryn Edin/Maria Keflas' "Unmarried with Children" in 2000
they hold marriage in high regard, but don't necessarily want to get married; she did a study and found that African Americans in low SES say they want to be helped by their man financially but want themselves to be stable even without him
Social Classes in America
1. Upper Class- old money-inherited and new money-earned, 5% of population; 2. Middle Class- 40 to 45%, ex. teacher with a retirement plan; Working Class- 33.3% of population, fewer benefits like health care; college is the goal, but only 1/3 of them will go; Lower class- 20% of population, only 1/4 get a college degree
a person's ability to move up and down the social ladder
Social Mobility; different types include: horizontal mobility-steady kinds of jobs, intRAgenerational mobility- the changing of your social status because of your family RAight now..during your lifetime, IntERgenerational mobility- the movement bERtween generations, like parent's making sure their kids are well off since they were not
a term used by George Herbert Mead to refer to people who do not have close ties to a child but who influence the child's internalization of society's norms and values
Generalized Other
the process of providing information and cues to others to present oneself in a favorable light while downplaying or concealing one's less appealing qualities
Impression Management
Mead's Three Stages in Developing a Sense of Self
Preparatory Stage- self centered and observant, play stage- imitates others, game stage- connects to societal roles
the process of unlearning old ways of doing things and adopting new attitudes, values, norms and behavior
Resocialization
a social position that a person occupies in a society
Status
a collection of social statuses than an individual occupies at a given time
Status Set
a social position that a person is born into
Ascribed Status
an ascribed or achieved status that determines a person's identity
Master Status
a behavior expected of a person who has a particular status
Role
the actual behavior of a person who occupies a status
Role Performance
the different roles attached to a single status
Role Set
the frustrations and uncertainties a person experiences when confronted with the requirements of two or more statuses
Role Strain
a term coined by Harold Garfinkel which is the study of how people construct and deal with reality-that we learn to share definitions of reality to make every day interactions possible
Ethnomethodology
the perspective that says people, when interacting, act to maximize rewards and benefits and minimize punishments or cost
Social Exchange Theory
cultural norms and laws that forbid sexual intercource between close blood relatives, such as brother and sister
Incest Taboo
newly married couples living with the husband's family
Patrilocal Residence Pattern
newly married couples living with the wife's family
Matrilocal Residence Pattern
newly married couples have their own residence
Neolocal Residence Pattern
when individuals marry several people, but one at a time
Serial Monogamy
state laws that do not require either partner to establish guilt or wrongdoing on the part of the other to get a divorce
No-Fault Divorce
a household in which two adults are biological or adoptive parents, with a child from a prior relationship, who marry or cohabit
Stepfamily
information that is based on observations, experiments, or experiences rather than on ideology, religion, or intuition
Empirical
reasoning that begins with a specific observation, followed by data collection and the development of a general conclusion or theory
Inductive Reasoning
The Levels of Personal Space from closest to farthest
Intimate Distance (18 inches), Personal Space (4 feet), Social Distance (very formal- ex. job interview, 12 feet around body), Public Distance (ex. public speakers or concerts)
created the theory of social control which is a direct response to crime; social control=the mechanisms that make people in a group act a certain way; laws are how government uses social control. Who does the law protect? Mainly those in power; people may not go to prison because they have economic power. A symbolic interactionist would say that people learn deviance from people around them and that those peers are more important than the government's follies. A conflict theorist would say that laws protect the rights of a few, usually the upper class (proletarians is what Marx says). Functionalists would say crimes occur when people experience blocked opportunities.
Donald Black
a set of mechanisms which redistribute resources; ex. it began with a few elites, okay middle class and large poor; if it changes, it will always go back. about crime, the laws protect elites and help keep classes the same
World System Theory
the growth and spread of investment, trade, communication, production and new technology around the world
Globalization
arranging the members of a society into a pattern of superior and inferior ranks. wealth, prestige, and power make up social class and this term (social stratification)
Social Stratification
this woman said that social class plays a bigger role in how parents raise their children than race; coined "Consertive motivation"-child is in all sorts of activities, negotiate instead of physical punishment, stressed talked and grammar and of the middle class; and "Accomplishment of Natural Growth"- parents provide food, safety, love and the child will do well' not in many activities; closer to relatives; used physical discipline; skeptical of professionals; working class
Annette Lareau
a woman who said that wives are more likely to hold on to social class from their childhood
Janeen Baxter
not having enough money to afford the most basic necessities of life
Absolute Poverty
not having enough money to maintain an average standard of living
Relative Poverty
the minimal level of income that the federal government considers necessary for basic substistence
Poverty Line
the idea that women are more often poor
The Feminization of Poverty
general term involving tendencies to diverge from the norm (sexually); those who are transsexual, intersexual and
Transgendered
identifies with a physical sex different from what the person is born with
Transsexual
at birth, the individual is not clearly male or female (hermaphrodite)
Intersexual
the belief that heterosexuality is superior
Heterosexism
people who cross dress at times but do not necessarily identify with the opposite sex
Transvestites
Feminine Traits: tactful, quiet, aware of feelings, connection, empathy, caring
Masculine Traits: aggressive, independent, dominant, competitive, active. and if equal in both male and female traits: androgenous
said that gender is a major building block to social order and a huge element in every day life
Stacy and Thorne
an intimate group of two or more people who 1. live together, 2. care for needs of each other, 3. share close emotional ties and functions
Family
one man, many wives
Polygyny
one wife, many husbands
Polyandry
Functions of the Family:
1. Sexual control or regulation, 2. Reproduce and socialize family into culture, 3. Economic security, 4. Emotional support, 5. Social Placement
Education- transmits attitudes, knowledge, beliefs, values, norms and skills to its members through formal, systematic training
: )
Schooling-formal training and instruction provided in a classroom setting
: D
observed that industrial nations use credentials (diplomas) in order to hire employees
Randall Collins
different colleges and different diplomas mean different things and vary in desirability
Carnegie System
Manifest (intended) Functions of Education
1. Socialization agencies, 2. Transmits knowledge and skills, 3. Cultural Integration, 4. Cultural Innovation, 5. Meritocracy (allows people to move up the economic ladder through professions)
Latent (unintended) Function of Education
1. Schools provide childcare, 2. Matchmaking institutions, 3. Education keeps kids out of job market, so there is less competition for a job, 4. Schools create social networks, 5. Good for business, 6. Creates jobs for teachers, cooks, RA's, etc.