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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Trouble
Personal Needs, problems and diffculties
symbolic interaction
focuses on ppls response to what others are doing
social status
a position in the social structure
rights
the behaviors that a person assuming a role can demand or expect from others
role
the behavior expected of a status
social structure
two or more people occupying social statuses and enacting roles
symbol
something physical to which people assign a name, meaning, or value
conflict theory
society is characterized by inequality and conflcit, who benefits?
colonias
dirty, unsanitized, more than 500,000 ppl live in them. They are in the U.S near the mexican border
dysfunction
disruptive consequences

ex. prison> increase crime
latent function
unintended function

ex: prisons> cheap labor/jobs
manifest function
obvious, intended function

ex: prisons> reduce crimes
stuctual functionalism
society is a complex system of parts which promotoe stablitty.
sociological theory
tell how society operate, ppl relate to one another in response to their surroundings
Max Weber
analyze and explain the course and the consequences of social actions
Emile Durkheim
socs. tasks is to analyze and explain solidarity( ties that bind ppl together)and the effects of susicide
Bourgeoisie
the owners of the means of production who exploit the labor of the proletariat
proletariat
those who muct sell their labor to the bourgeoisie
means of production
the resources( land, tools) essential to produce and distribute goods and services
Karl Marx
socs. task was to explain and anaylze conflict( the major source that drives social change)
Industrial revolution
changed the nature of work and the ways in which ppl interacted w/one another
institution
Emerged over time for human interaction and to meet some social need
issue
can be explained by factors outside an indvid. control and immediate environment
social interaction
when ppl communicate w/ lang. and gestures to affect one anothers behavior and thinking
macrosoc.
study of large social phenenena (groups and organizations)
microsoc
study of face to face interaction between ppl. (who makes more eye contact, men or women?)
soc.
the study of patterns in human interaction, the study of groups
obligations
the relationship and behavior that the person enactiing a role must assume toward others in a particualr status
status symbol
signs that identify a status
ascribed status
involuntary; assigned to a person at birth

ex: black, gender, postion in family
achieved status
earned; attained largely through one's own effort
ex: occupation,education)
master status
a status that is especially powerful in determining a persons identity
role set
the roles associated w/ ones stauts
role conflict
what is expected of us in one role conflicts w/ what is expected of us in another role
drama approach
social interaction occurs in a "theather"
people "act" to impress
front stage
how you act in front of ppl. what is expected of you
back stage
ppl can do things that are inappropate or unexpected on the front stage.
impression managment
ppl share their dress, words, gestures to fit the social situation
scapegoat
a person on group blamed for conditions the that the leaders cannot control
deviance
violation of norms, varies across space, time, or group. any behavior can be defined as DV. every culture has a rule or say on DV
conformity
behavior and appearence that follows a group. accepts cultural goals and the pursuit of these goals through legit means
social control
methods used to teach, or force a group members to comply with and not DV from its norms and expectations
Norm
rules ppl are expected to observe
folkway
norm of everyday life
ex: what you wear to church, when we eat
mores
norms that are considered important to the moral well-being of a group. vilolations result in sever punishment
ex: canabalism
sanctions
reactions of approval or disapproval to other behavior or appearance
Positive sanction
an expression of approval
negative sanction
an expression of disapproval for noncompliance
Formal sanction
applied by an organization/agency
ex: dipolma from formal body
informal sanction
spontaneous or unoffical reaction
ex: dirty look
crime
behavior that breaks the law
law
norms defined by a government
crack/cocaine disparity
certain racial groups get charged harder sentences from the same drug
psychological view on DV
personalities are not necessarily criminal
strain theory
DV occurs when socirty doesnt provide the legit means to achieve cultural goals
conformist
accepts cultural goals, uses acceptal means. Ppl who have not violated the rules of a group and are treated accordingly
innovators
accepts cultural goals but uses rejects legit means to obtain goals
ex: drug dealer
ritualists
rejects cultural goals,"goes through the motions" uses legit means
ex: teacher
retreatism
rejects cultural and the means of achieveing those goals
ex: drug addict
rebels
tries to change cultual goals, uses DV means
ex: terrorist
differential association
criminal(and non) behavior is learned from primary groups
DV subculture
breaks the norms of the larger society
control theory
social bonds that keep us from DV
attachment
connection to parents, teachers, conforming friends ( learn self control)
commitment
set goals (socially acceptable)
involvement
busy life; keeps from DV
belief
accept convential values
Labeling Theory
reaction from other ppl lead to DV
self fulfilling prophecy
believeing that something is true about you, and acting in a way that makes it true
research steps
1.select the topic
2.review the litature
3.identify core concepts
4.choose a reseach design forming a HYPOTHESIS
5. analyze the results
6.report the findings
research question
what you are trying to find out
ex: How sexually active are college students?
variable
trait or characteristic that can change under different conditions
operational definition
clear deifintions on how to observe and measure concepts and variables
hypothesis
an educated guess about how variables are related
dependent variable
the variable to be explained or predicted
independent variable
the variable that explains or predicts the dependent variable
population
the total number of indiv., traces, docs, or groups that could be studied
sample
a portion of the cases from a larger pop.
sampling frame
a complete list of every cases in the pop.
random sample
every case has an equal chance of being selected
rep. sample
those selected for study have the same distribution of characteristic as the pop. chosen for the study
generalizablitity
findings can be applied to the larger pop. from which the sample is drawn
survey
ask ppl questions
experiment
using highly controlled conditions
control group
the ppl who do not recieve treatment
experimental group
the ppl who recieve treatement
confederate
a person who is working in cooperation w/ a reseach project
secondary sources
data that have been collected by other researchers for some other purpose
field research
in dept, broader understading of process, small groups cannot generalize
participatnt observation
reseachers directly interact w/ participants
non participation observation
involves watching and listening, the researcher does not interact with the participant
Nuremburg Code
1. consent
2. can terminate or refuse participation
3. no stress
4. clear benefits
Tusegee study
" the longest research" unethical b/c didnt tell men they had diesease
culture
societys total way of life
defined by meanings
Principles of Culture
culture consists of material and nonmaterial components
material culture
objects
ex: telephone, car, money
all have a particular meaning
nonmaterial culture
ways of thinking and doing
beliefs
conceptions that ppl accept as true about how the wolrd works and where ppl fit in it
values
shared conception of what is good, right, approiate
ex: marriage, pursuit bad guys
language
system of word meaning and symbols
permeates all parts of society
idiom
words put together that have a different literally meaning of each word.
feeling rules
norms that specify appropiate ways express internal bodily sensations
diffusion
an idea, or invention is borrowed from a foregin source
Culture shock
strain ppl from one culture experience when put in a new culture
ethnocentrism
the tendency to assume that ones culture and ways of life are superior to all others
reverse entho.
says other cultures are better than theirs
cultural relativism
understanding another culture w/o judging it
views ppls behavior from the perspective of their own culture
subculture
groups that share in some part of the dominant culture but have their own norms, lang,ect
socialization
a lifelong process by which ppl develop an identity and learn about society/ culture
internalization
accept binding values, beliefs and lang needed to participate in the larger community
collective memory
past experiences of some ppl which are share by many ppl
group
share a distinct identity, feel sense of belonging, and interact w/ eachother
primary group
members have strong ties and face to face contact
ex:family
secondary group
larger, formal, impersonal. shared interest or activity
ingroup
ppl identify w/, feel closely attached, founded on hatered toward outgroup
outgroup
members of the ingroup feel hatred,seperated from, and opposition
role taking
stepping out of oneself and imagingin how others view your appearence.
total institution
ppl surrender total control of their lives, volintary and non, to staff
generalized other
expected behaviors, meaning and viewpoints that transcend those of the ppl participating
ex: attitude of the whole community
looking glass self
ppl see themselves reflected in others imagined reactions to their appearance and behaviors
George Mead
the I and Me concept the Me is social and follows norms and the I is the one that is sometimes looked at as inapporpaite or sometimes unique
Charles Cooley
used the lookin glass self to descibe the way ppl feel and see themsleves in the face of others.here we develop pride or shame
harriet martineau
conducted research on the U.S, see all the country and its diversity
W.E.B Dubois
20th century is the color line, flaws is U.S system of racial classification
society
system of social interaction