Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/211

Click to flip

211 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Structural Organization
Atoms, molecules, Cells, tissues, organs, system, organism
Systemic Anatomy 10 systems
Skeletal, Circulatory, Digestive, Respiratory, Urinary, Reproductive, Nervous, Muscular, Endocrine, Integumentary
How many bones in the skeletal system?
206
What is the study of bones called?
Osteology
The study of joints is called.
Arthrology
What are the functions of the skeletal system?
To support and protect the body
To allow movement
To produce RBC’s
To store calcium
What is the circulatory system composed of?
The cardio organs are heart, blood, and blood vessels
The lymph system organs are lymph nodes, lymph vessels, lymph glands and spleen
What are the six functions of the cardiovascular system?
1.To distribute oxygen & nutrients to cells of the body 2 to carry cell waste & carbon dioxide from cells,3 to tranport water, electrolytes,hormones,& enzymes4to protect against diseases5to prevent hemorrharge 6 help regulate body tempature
what are the organs of the digestive system?
Mouth,pharynx,esophagus,stomach,small intestine,large intestine,and anus,
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?
salivary glands,liver, gallblader,and pancreas
what is the two fold function of the digestive system?
1. To prepare food for absorbtion by the cells by many physical and cemical breakdown processes
2. To eliminate soild wastes from the body
What are the organs of the Respiratory system?
nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tree
What are the three functions of the respiratory system?
1. to supply oxygen to the blood and eventually the cells
2. to eliminate carbon dioxide from the blood
3. to assist in regulating the acid-based balance of the blood.
What are the organs of the Urinary system?
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
what are the four functions of the urinary system?
1. To regulate the chemical compostion of the blood
2. To eliminate many waste products
3. To regulate fluid and eletrolyte balance and volume
4.To maintain the acid-base balance of the body.
What is the function of the reproductive system?
To produce, transport and store the germ cells.at
Also to reproduce a organism
What are the organs of the reproductive system?
Males are testes and ovaries in the female.
What are the transport and storage organs?
In males the vas deferens, prostate gland, and penis
In females uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina
What are the organs of the nervous system?
Brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia.
The special sense organs are the eyes and ears
what is the function of the nervous system?
regulate body activitites with eletrical impulses traveling along various nerves
what are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
1. skeletal
2. visceral
3. cardiac
what are the 3 functions of the muscle tissue?
1. To allow movement
2. to maintain posture
3. To produce heat
what are the glands of the endocrine system
testes, ovaries, pancreas, adrenals, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, and pituitary. the placenta acts as a temporary endocrine gland.
what is the function of the endocrine glands.
to regulate bodily activies through the various hormones carried by the cardiovascular system.
what are the structures of the intugumentary system?
skin, hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands.
what are the 4 functions of the intugumentary system?
1. To regulate body temp.
2. to protect the body
3. To eliminate waste products through prespiration
4. To receive certain stimuli such as temp, pressure, and pain
what are the 2 sections that the sketeton is divided into?
Axial and Appendicular
how many bones are in the axial skeleton?
80
what bones make up the axial skeleton?
Skull, Vertebral colum, ribs, sternum
what are the bones of the skull and how many?
cranium 8
facial bones 14
how many bones in the hyoid?
1
how many bones in the auditory ossicles
(small bones in each ear)?
6
what are the bones and how many in the vertebral colum?
cervicle 7
Thoracic 12
lumbar 5
sacrum 1
coccyx 1
what are the bones of the thorax and how many?
sternum 1
ribs 24
What is projection?
Termthat describes the direction or path of the CR of the X-ray as it passes through the patient, projecting an image onto the IR
What is a Posteroanterior Projection?
(PA)
A projection of the CR from posterior to anterior.
Anteroposterior Projection
(AP)
A projection of the CR from anterior to posterior.
AP Oblique projection
An AP projection of the lower or upper limb that is obliqued or rotated.Must include a rotating term (medial or lateral) to indicate the way of the rotation.
PA Oblique Projection
A PA projection of the upper limb with lateral rotation. Must include a qualifying term indicating which way it is rotated.
Mediolateral Projection
Lateral projection described by the path of the CR. Example is the mediolateral projection of the ankle.
Lateromedial Projection
Lateral projection described by the apth of the CR. Example is the lateromedial projection of the wrist.
Supine
Lying on back
Prone
Lying on abdomen
Erect
An upright position
Recumbent
Lying down in any position
Dorsal Recombent
Lying on back
Ventral Recombent
Lying face down
Lateral Recombent
Lying on the side
Trendelenburg
A recombent position with the whole body tilted so that the head is higher then the feet.
Fowler's Position
A recombent position with the body tilted so that the head is higher then the feet.
Sim's Position
A recombent oblique position with the patient lying on the left anterior side, with the right knee flexed and with the left arm extended down the back.
Lithotomy Position
A recombent position with the hip and knee flexed and thighs abducted and rotated externally, supported by ankle supports.
Lateral Position
Side View
Specific is described as the
part closest to the IR or that body part from which the CR exist
Oblique Position
An angled position in which neither the saggittal or coronal plane is perpendicular to the IR.
Left Posterior Oblique (LPO)
Specific oblique position in which the left posterior aspect of the body is closest to the IR
Right Posterior Oblique (RPO)
Specific oblique position in which the right posterior aspect of the body is closest to the IR
Descriptions of Obliques of Upper and Lower Limbs
Described as AP or PA Obliques, but use medial or lateral rotation as a qualifier.
Right Anterior Oblique (RAO)
Oblique positions in which the right anterior aspect of the body is closest to the IR and can be an erect or recombent general body position.
Left Anterior Oblique (LAO)
Oblique position where the left anterior aspect is closer to the IR and can be an erect or recombent general body position.
Decubitus Position
Lying on a horizontal surface.
Right or Left Lateral Decubitis Position
The patient lies on it's side, and the x-ray beam is directed horizontally from anterior posterior or posterior anterior.
Dorsal Decubitis Position
Patient is lying on the Dorsal surface with the x-ray beam directed horizontally, exiting from the side closest to the IR.
Ventral Decubitis Position
Patient is lying on the ventral surface (stomach) with the x-ray beam directed horizontally, exiting from the side closest to the IR.
Axial projection
Any angle of the CR more then 10 degrees along the long axis of the body.
Inferosuperior Axial Projections
They are frequently performed for the shoulder and hip, where the CR enters below or inferiorly and exits above or superiorly.
Superoinferior Axial Projections
Opposite of inferosuperior projection, but are used in instances such as the nasal bones projection.
Tangential Projection
A projection that merely skims the a body part to project that part int profile and away from other body structures.
AP Axial Projection-lordotic position
Specific AP chest X-ray that demonstrates the apices of the lungs.Also called the apical lordotic projection.
What bones make up the appendicular skelton?
All bones of the upper and lower limbs (extremities), pelvic and shoulder girdles.
Names of bones in shoulder girdles?
Clavicle and scapula.
List bones in upper limbs.
Humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metscarpals, phalanges.
Name bone in pelvic gridle.
Hip bone
Name bones in lower limbs.
Femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges.
Name 5 classifications of bones.
Long bones, flat bones, short bones, irregular bones, sesamoid bones.
The outter shell of bones are made of?
Compact bone (or cortex)
The inside of the bone is made up of?
Spongy bone (or cancellous bone)
The long hollow portion of a long bone is known as?
Medullary cavity.
What covers the outside of bone except at articulating surfaces?
Periosteum.
What covers the end of bones?
Articular cartilage. (or hyaline cartilage)
The medullary cavity contains what type of marrow?
Fatty yellow marrow.
Spongy bone contains what type of marrow?
Red bone marrow.(responsible for production of red blood cells)
Name some examples of long bones.
Femur, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula, hunerus.
Name some examples of short bones.
The eight carpal bones and the seven tarsal bones.
Spheroid (ball and socket) joints
Synovial joint; Joint allows the greatest freedom of motion.
Movements: Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, medial and lateral rotation.
Example: Hip joint and shoulder joint
Radiograph
Is a film or other base material containing a processed image of an anatomic part of a patient. Includes film and image
Radiography
The production of radiographs or other forms of radiographic images.
x-ray film
The physical piece of material on which the radiographic image is exposed.
Radiographic images
The representation of the patient’s anatomic structures.
What are the 5 steps in a radiographic examination or procedure?
1. Positioning of the body part and central ray (CR) alignment.2. Selection of radiation protection measures
3. Selection of exposure factors (radiographic technique) on the control panel (generator)4. Patient instructions relating to respiration (breathing) and initiation (or “making”) of the exposure. 5. Processing of the image receptors (IR)
Anatomic Position
Is an upright position, arms adducted (down), palms forward, head and feet directed straight ahead.
How do you view radiographs?
Display the radiograph so that the patient is facing the viewer, with the patient in anatomic position.
Sagittal plane
Is any longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal plane
Something called the median plane, it divides the body into equal right and left parts.
Coronal plane
Is any longitudinal plane dividing the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Midcoronal plane
Divides the body into equal anterior and posterior parts
Horizontal (axial) plane
Is any transverse plane that is passing though the body at right angles to the longitudinal plane, dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
Oblique plane
Is a longitudinal or transverse plane that is at an angle or slant and not parallel to the sagittal, coronal, or horizontal planes.
Posterior or dorsal
Refers to the back half of the patient, or that part of the body seen when viewing from the back; includes the bottom of the feet and the back of the hands from anatomic position.
Anterior or ventral
Refers to the front half of the patient, or that part of the body seen when viewing from the front; includes the tops of the feet and the palms of the hands from anatomic position
Plantar
Refers to the sole or posterior surface of the foot
Dorsal Foot
Refers to the top or anterior surface of the foot (aka: dorsum pedis)
Dorsal Hand
Refers to the back or posterior aspect of the hand (aka: dorsum manus)
Palmer
Refers to the palm of the hand
Name some examples of flat bones.
skull cap (clavarium), sternum, ribs, scapulae.
Name some examples of irregular bones.
Vertebrae, facial bones, bones of the pelvis, bones at base of cranium.
Name the one major sesamoid bone.
Patella
Red blood cells are produced in?
Red bone marrow of certain flat and irregular bones (sternum, ribs, vertebrae and pelvis) and in the ends of long bones.
The shaft of a long bone is also known as a what?
Body
Name two characteristics of compact bone.
few intercellular empty spaces and serves to protect and support entire bone.
Name cartilage that is glossy or clear, also known as gristle, also known as articular cartilage on the ends of bones.
Hyaline cartilage
Flat bones provide what two things?
protection for interior contents and broad surfaces for muscle attachment.
The narrow space between the inner and outter table of flat bones in the cranium is known as?
Diploe
How many bones in appendicular skeleton?
126
What is the process by which bones form?
Ossification
(They embryonic skeleton is composed of fibrous membranes and hyaline cartilage. Ossification begins about the sixth ebryonic week and continues until adulthood.
What are the two kinds of bone formation?
1. Intramembranous
2. Endochondral
What is Intramembranous bone formation?
When bone replaces membrane
What is Enchondral bone formation?
When bone replaces cartilage
What is the first center of ossification?
The primary center (occurs in the midbody area)
What is the primary center of ossification in growing bones called?
Diaphysis
Ossification that appears near the ends or extremities of long bones is termed what?
Ephiphysis
What is the name of the cartilaginous plate found between the diaphysis and each epiphysis (until skeletal growth is complete)?
Epiphyseal Plate
Full maturity of bone growth is about how many years?
25 years
What do you call the study of the joints or articulations?
Arthrology
What is an immoveable joint called?
Synarthrosis
What is a joint with limited movement called?
Amphiarthrosis
What is a freely moveable joint called?
Diarthrosis
What are the three types of Fibrous joints?
Syndesmosis, suture, comphosis
What are the twotypes of Cartilagenous Joints?
Symphysis and Synchrondrisis
What are the three types of tissue that separate joints?
Fibrous, Cartilaginous and Synovial
What are Fibrous joints held together by?
Fibrous Connective Tissue
There is only one true sydesmosis joint in the body, what is it?
distal tibiofubular joint (it is amphiarthrodial)
Sutures can be found where? What are the moving capability of these?
Between the bones of the skull, synarthrodial
Where is a gomphosis joint located?
Teeth
How are cartilaginous joints held together?
Held together tightly by cartilage.
What is the essential feature of of a symphasis?
The presence of a broad flattened disk of fibrocartilage between two contiguous bony surfaces
What is a temporary form of a joint wherein connecting hyaline cartilage (which on a long bone is called an epiphysial plate) is converted into bone at adulthood?
Synchondrosis
What type of joint are characterized by being a fibrous capsule containing synovial fluid?
Synovial joint
What are the thin protective coverings over the exposed ends of bones in a synovial joint?
hyaline articular cartilage
What contains a viscous lubricating synovial fluid, is enclosed and surrounded by a fibrous capsules reinforced by strengthening accessory ligaments?
Joint Cavity
What are the six types of movement by which you can group joints?
Plane, Ginglymus, Trochoid, Ellipsoid, Sellar
What is another name for a Plane joint? And what is its movement?
Gliding; sliding or gliding moition between the articulating surfaces.
What is another name for a Ginglymus joint? And what is its movement?
Hinge; Flexion and extension movements.
What is another name for a Trochoid joint? And what is its movement?
Pivot; rotational movements around a single axis.
What is another name for a Ellispsoid joint? And what is its movement?
condyloid; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction
What is another name for a Sellar joint? And what is its movement?
Saddle; flexion, extension, adduction, abduction and circumduction
What is another name for a Spheroid joint? And what movements is it capable of?
Ball and socket; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction and medial and lateral rotation.
Give an example of a Plane (gliding) joint?
intermetacarpal, carpometacarpal and intercarpal joints; the atlantoaxial joints between C1 and C2
Give an example of a Ginglymus (hinge)joint?
interphalangeal joints of the fingers and toes, the knee joint and the elvow as well as the ankle joint.
Give an example of a Trochoid (pivot)joint?
Proximal & distal radioulnar joints of the forearm, which demonstrate this pivot movement during rotation of the hand and wrist; between the 1st and 2nd vertebrae
Give an example of an Ellipsoid (condyloid) joint?
second thru fifth metacarpophalangeal joints of fingers, the wrist joint the metatarsophalangeal joints of the toes.
Give an example of a Sellar (saddle) joint?
first carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
Give an example of a Spheroid (ball and socket joint)
the hip joint and the shoulder joint.
Flexion
decreases the angle of the joint
Extension
increases the angle as the body part moves from a flexed to a straightened position
Hyperextension
Extending the joint beyond the straight or nutral position
Abnormal hyperextension
an unnatural movement for joints such as the elbow or knee resulting in injury or trauma
flexion of the spine
bending forward
extension of the spine
returning to the straight or neutral position
Hyperextension of the spine
backward bending beyond the neutral position
hyperextended wrist movement
(dorsiflexion)
where the carpal canal or carpal tunnel view of the carpals is visualized
Acute flexion of the wrist
special tangential projection for a carpal bridge view of the posterior aspect of the wrist
Deviation
"to turn aside" or "to turn away from the standard or course"
Ulnar deviation
to turn or bend the hand and wrist from the natural position toward the ulnar side
radial deviation
to turn or bend the hand and wrist from the natural position the radial
Dorsiflexion of foot
to decrease the angle(flex) between the dorsum(top of foot) and the lower leg, moving foot and toes upward
Plantar flexion of the foot
extending the ankle joint
moving foot and toes downward
Eversion
outward stress movement
of the foot at the ankle joint
Inversion
inward stress movement of the foot
Valgus
bending of the part outward or away from the midline of the body
Varus
"knock-kneed"
bending of a part inward or toward the midline of the body
Medial(internal)rotation
moving the anterior aspect of the part toward the inside, or median, plane.
Lateral(external)rotation
rotation of an anterior body part tword the outside, or away from the median plane.
Abduction
lateral movement of the arm or leg away from the body
(abdution of the fingers)
to spread them apart
Adduction
movement of arm or leg tword the body
(adduction of fingers)
to move them together
Supination
rotational movement of the hand into the anatomic position(palm up in supine position of forward)
Pronation
rotation of the hand into the opposite of the anatomic position
Protraction
movement forward from a normal position
Retraction
movement backward or the condition of being drawn back
Elevation
lifting,raising, or moving of a part superiorly
Depression
letting down,lowering, or moving of a part inferiorly
Circumduction
to move around in the form of a circle
Rotation
to turn or rotate a body part on its axis
Tilt
slanting or tilting movement with respect to the long axis
what is interior mean?
inside of of something, near to the center
what is exterior mean?
is situated on or near the outside
what does intra mean?
within or inside
what does inter mean?
between something
what does exo mean?
outside or outward
what does superficial mean?
nearer to the skins surface
what does deep mean?
farther away
what does ipsilateral mean?
same side of body or part
waht does contralateral mean?
opposite side of body or part
what does lordosis and kyphosis describe?
front ot back or anterior-to-posterior curvature of the spine
what is lordosis?
the swayback curvature of the spine most common the lumbar region
what is kyphosis?
the humpback curvature of the spine most common to the thoracic spine region
what is scoliosis?
the lateral or side to side curvature of the spine
What is the Transthoracic lateral projection?
A lateral projection through the thorax.
What is a Dorsoplantar projection?
Describes the path of the CR from the dorsal surface to the plantar surface of the foot.
What is the Plantodorsal Projection?
Describes the pathway of the CR from the plantar surface to the dorsal surface of the foot.
What is the Parietoacanthial Projection?
(PA Waters)
The CR enters at the cranial parietal bone and exits at the acanthion (junction of the nose and upper lip)
What is the Acanthioparietal Projection?
(AP reverse Waters)
The CR enters at the acanthion and out of the parietal bone.
What is the Submentovertex Projections?
(SMV)
The CR enters below the chin and exits at the top of the skull.
What is the Verticosubmental Projection?
(VSM)
The CR enters at the top of the skull and exits below the mandible.
Medial
Towards the inside aspect portion of the body, closest to the median plane
Lateral
Away from median plane or midline of the body.
Proximal
Near the source or beginning
Distal
Away from the source or beginning.
Cephalad
Towards the head of the body
Caudad
Away from the head of the body
Cephalad angle
Is any angle toward the head of the body
Caudad angle
Is any angle toward the feet or away from the head end “tail”