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61 Cards in this Set

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Who established the first psychology laboratory?

Wilhelm Wundt and psychology's first graduate students

What is introspection? Who first studied it?

-"self-report" data, reporting on sensations and other elements of experience, in reaction to


stimuli such as the smell or feel of a flower.


-Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener

What is natural selection? Who is it associated with?

-Some traits, behaviors, and instincts are part of the nature of the species


-Charles Darwin

What does the psychodynamic perspective focus on as the cause of mental illness later in life?

-"Do inner childhood conflicts still plague me and affect my behavior?"


-How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts


-childhood trauma

Which psychological perspective focuses on negative thought patterns as the cause of anxiety?

social-cultural

Who is William James? Which perspective did he support?

-William James was a 19th century philosopher and psychologist who is widely regarded as the founder of American psychology.


-

Which mental health profession possesses a medical degree?

psychiatry

What is the goal of humanistic psychology?

-studied those who were thriving


-self-actualization

What is hindsight bias, overconfidence, and coincidence error?

HB: "i knew it all along", rationalize decision, ex: "I totally knew I wasn't going to get the job"


OC: "I am sure I am correct"


CC: seeing meaning in random events, mistakenly perceiving order in random events, "the dice must be fixed because you rolled three 6s in a row"

Who is the amazing Randi? Which scientific attitude does he possess in great quantity?

a magician, skepticism

What are the three components of the scientific attitude?

curious, skeptical, humble

Differentiate between theory and hypothesis.

Theory: explains with principles that organize observations and predict behaviors pr events


Hypothesis: testable predictions

What is an operational definition?

quantitative, need to measure so need to quantify it, ex: 4 curses/day means aggressive

What is replication? Why is it important?

replicating research, using same operational definitions of procedure to copy and see if results can be disproven

Which type of sample is generally used in psychology?

random sample

Differentiate between naturalistic observation, case study, survey, and experiment

NO: gathering data about behavior; watching but not intervening, they don't know bing studied


CS: compile an in depth study of one person


EX: get ppl together to participate in study

What is a correlation? Differentiate between negative, positive, and zero correlations.

-an observation that two traits/attributes/variables are related to each other, a measure of how closely two factors vary together, or how well they can predict a change in one from observing a change in the other


N: one number goes up, one goes down


P: both numbers go one way

How is a correlation graphically presented?

one on one side...the other...

What is a double blind study? Why would you use it?

neither participant nor research staff knows which participants are in the experimental or control group

What is a placebo? Placebo effect? How does the placebo effect influence behavior?

presented exactly the same as real thing, sugar pill, inactive substance


ppl belive so it works a little





Differentiate between random sampling and random assignment. Why is each one important?

RS: technique for making sure that every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in a sample


RA: randomly assigning each person to a group


makes sure study is sound, how you control all variables except the one you are manipulating

Differentiate between independent, dependent, and confounding variable.

IV: what is manipulated


DV: outcome, what measuring


CV: like heat to ice cream sales and violence rates, alternative explanations

What is biological psychology/neuroscience?

study of the brain

What is the function of dendrites? The function of axons?

D: receive messages from other cells


A: passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, and glands

What function does the myelin sheath perform? Which disease is associated with degeneration of the myelin sheath?

MS: helps speed neural impulses


MS, multiple sclerosis

What is a synapse? What happens at the synapse?

synapse is a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

Briefly describe the process of neurotransmitter reuptake.

neurotransmitters are chemicals used to send a signal across the synaptic gap


-After the neurotransmitters stimulate the receptors on the receiving neuron, the chemicals are taken back up to be use again

Too little serotonin is associated with which psychiatric illness?

depression

Too little dopamine is associated with which neurodegenerative condition?

undersupply linked to tremors and decreased mobility in Parkinson’s disease and ADHD

Too much dopamine is associated with which psychiatric illness?

Oversupply linked to schizophrenia;

Be able to recognize the names of common SSRI drugs and benzodiazepines and know what neurotransmitter systems they target.

idk

What is the central nervous system? What is the peripheral nervous system?

The central nervous system [CNS] consists of the brain and spinal cord.The CNS makes decisions for the body.


-The peripheral nervous system consists of ‘the rest’ of the nervous system. The PNS gathers and sends information to and from the rest of the body.

What is the role of the autonomic nervous system? Differentiate between the functions of its two divisions.

controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands


-sympathetic (arousing)


-parasympathetic (calming)

What is the chemical messenger of the endocrine system?

The endocrine system refers to a set of glands that produce chemical messengers called hormones.


-hormones

Which master gland of the endocrine system controls the other glands and is controlled by the hypothalamus?

pituitary gland

Be able to distinguish between agonist and antagonist and correctly classify common substances talked about in class

idk

What is a lesion?

surgical destruction of the brain tissue

Which part of the brainstem controls breathing and heart rate?

medulla

What is the function of the reticular formation?

The reticular formation is a nerve network in the brainstem.It enables alertness, (arousal) from coma to wide awake (as demonstrated in the cat experiments).It also filters incoming sensory information.

Which brainstem structure controls fine more movements and balance?

cerebellum

Distinguish between EEG, fMRI, PET, X-ray. Know the function of each one.

-An EEG (electroencephalogram) is a recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, An EEG is useful in studying seizures and sleep


-Functional MRI reveals brain activity and function rather than structures, compares successive MRI images taken a split second apart, and shows changes in the level of oxygen in bloodflow in the brain


-The PET scan allows us to see what part of the brain is active by tracing where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.


-shows bones

What is the function of the corpus callosum?

axon fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, connects brain halves

What role does the amygdala play? Hippocampus?

A: fight or flight


H: processes conscious, episodic memories, works with amygdala to form emotionally charged memories

What is the function of glial cells?

feed and protect neurons and assist neural transmission

Know the function of the 4 lobes of the brain.

Frontal lobes: involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments


Parietal lobes: include the sensory cortex


Occipital lobes: include the visual areas; they receive visual information from the opposite visual field


Temporal lobes: include the auditory processing areas

The Fusiform Face Area (FFI) does what? Where is it located?

is a part of the human visual system that, it is speculated, is specialized for facial recognition. It is located in the fusiform gyrus (part of the temporal lobe and occipital lobe)

Which body part gets the most tissue allocated in the motor cortex?

face, lips, hands

Differentiate between the functions of the left and right hemisphere.

Left: Thoughts and logicDetails such as “trees”Language: words and definitionsLinear and literal Calculation Pieces and details


Right: Feelings and intuitionBig picture such as “forest”Language: tone, inflection, contextInferences and associationsPerceptionWholes, including the self

What is the function of the corpus callosum?

connects two brain halves together, lets them communicate

What is consciousness?

our awareness of ourselves and our environment, alertness; being awake vs. being unconsciousself-awareness; the ability to think about selfhaving free will; being able to make a “conscious” decisiona person’s mental content, thoughts, and imaginings

What is selective attention and why is it important?

our brain is able to choose a focus and select what to notice


-there so that we don't get overwhelmed by all the details

What is demonstrated during the “door study”?

that we selectively pay attention to the details on which we focus on/the details that our brain thinks are important

What is the circadian rhythm?

refers to the body’s natural 24-hour cycle, roughly matched to the day/night cycle of light and dark

Stage 2 sleep is associated with what waveform disturbances?

theta waves with sleep spindles (bursts of activity)

During which stage of sleep do people sleepwalk?

NREM 3

What is paradoxical sleep?

“Sleep paralysis” occurs when the brainstem blocks the motor cortex’s messages and the muscles don’t move. This is sometimes known as “paradoxical sleep”; the brain is active but the body is immobile.

How long is the human sleep cycle?

90 mins

Know what steps should be taken to get a better night sleep.

Turn the lights low and turn all screens off.


Eat earlier, and drink less alcohol and caffeine.Get up at the same time every day.


Exercise (late afternoon is best).


Don’t check the clock; just let it happen.


Get counseling for anxiety and depression

What is REM Behavioral Disorder? What is Narcolepsy? What is Sleep Apnea?

RBD: dreams are acted out while person is in REM sleep


N: sleep attacks, even a collapse into REM/paralyzed sleep, at inopportune times


SA: repeated awakening after breathing stops; time in bed is not restorative sleep

What is Fatal Familial Insomnia? Which area of the brain is involved?

never ending insomnia


thalamus

Differentiate between the latent and manifest content of a dream.

Latent: conflicts, worries, urges, hidden meaning


Manifest: plot, actions, images recalled