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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"wiggles in time"
vibrations
"wiggles in space"
waves
waves transmit ____ & ____
energy and information
to & fro vibratory motion that results in sine curves
simple harmonic motion
pendulums: the period does/does not depend on the amount of mass
does not
pendulums: the period does/does not depend on the length of the pendulum
does
time required for one vibration
measured in seconds
period
number of vibrations per unit time
measured in hertz
frequency
equation to calculate the frequency and/or period
P=1/T or T=1/P
What is the frequency in vibrations per second of a 50 Hz wave?
the period?
50, 1/50
distance from the baseline to the crest of a wave
amplitude
distance from the top of one crest to the top of the next
wavelength
stuff the carries the wave
i.e. water carries water waves, people carry stadium waves
medium
speed at which waves pass by a particular point
wave speed
wave speed only depends on the ________
type of medium
what is the equation for wave speed?
wave speed = frequency x wavelength
wave speed of water
1 m/s
wave speed of air
30 m/s
wave speed of light
300,000,000 m/s
shorter sound wavelengths have a lower/higher pitch
higher
shorter light wavelengths are ____ and higher wavelengths are ____
blue, red
slower than the speed of sound
subsonic
faster than the speed of sound
supersonic
the mach # is..
speed of object/speed of sound
side to side vibration in a direction perpendicular to the waves motion
transverse waves
water waves are transverse/longitudinal waves
transverse
back and forth vibration in a direction parallel to the waves
longitudinal waves
sound waves are transverse/longitudinal waves
longitudinal
when waves add together
constructive and destructive
interference
wave pattern produced from interfering waves traveling in opposite directions
standing waves
the bell wave machine in class demonstrated..
standing waves
the change in wavelength due to motion of the source
Doppler Effect
waves in front of a moving boat have a shorter/longer wavelength and a lower/higher frequency (pitch)
shorter, higher
sound waves have ____ & ____ regions
compressions, rarefaction
frequencies < 20 Hz
infrasonic
frequencies > 20,000 Hz
ultrasonic
human hearing range
frequencies between 20 and 20,000 Hz
speed of sound in air
340 m/s, 760 mph
speed of sound varies with ____, ____, & ____
humidity, temperature, density
study of sound properties
acoustics
when a sound wave strikes a surface it can be ____, ____, or ____
reflected, transmitted, absorbed
re-echoed sound, multiple reflections of sound waves from walls
reverberation
bending of a wave
refraction of sound
sound travels slower/faster in warm air then in cool air
faster
sound waves bend toward/away cooler air
toward
the setting up of vibrations in an object by a vibrating force
forced vibrations
frequency at which an elastic object naturally tends to vibrate
natural frequency
at natural frequency, a minimum/maximum energy is required to produce a forced vibration
minimum
natural frequency of a body depends on its ____, ____, & ____
elasticity, size, shape
the result of forced vibrations in a body when the applied frequency matches the natural frequency of the body
resonance
swinging your legs on a swing and the Tacoma Narrows Bridge accident are examples of..
resonance
overlapping compressions of a sound wave will result in constructive/destructive interference and a louder/softer sound
constructive, louder
overlapping a compression and rarefaction results in constructive/destructive interference and a louder/softer sound
destructive, softer
the periodic variation in loudness of two sounds played together
beats
equal to the difference in the frequency of two sounds
beat frequency
What is the beat frequency of two waves with frequencies of 440 Hz and 445 Hz?
5 Hz
an impression of the sound wave on a higher frequency radio wave
modulation
AM stands for ____ ____
amplitude modulation
FM stands for ____ ____
frequency modulation
What is the difference between noise and music?
appearance of the waveform
music has consistent/random waves and noise has consistent/random waves
consistent, random
the "highness" or "lowness" of a tone
pitch
corresponds to frequency
pitch
refers to the amplitude of the pressure variations in the sound wave
intensity of sound
physiological sensation directly related to the sound intensity
loudness
loudness is measured in..
bels
1 bel = __ decibels
10
increase the loudness by 10 db and you increase the intensity by __
10
increase the loudness by 20 db and you increase the intensity by __
100
characteristic of sound the allows us to distinguish between two musical instruments (aka timbre)
quality
one of the many frequencies present in a complex tone
partial tones
the lowest frequency of vibration
fundamental frequency
1st harmonic
the partial tone that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency
harmonic
a mathematical method that will resolve any periodic wave form into a series of simple sine waves
Fourier analysis