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### 74 Cards in this Set

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 "wiggles in time" vibrations "wiggles in space" waves waves transmit ____ & ____ energy and information to & fro vibratory motion that results in sine curves simple harmonic motion pendulums: the period does/does not depend on the amount of mass does not pendulums: the period does/does not depend on the length of the pendulum does time required for one vibration measured in seconds period number of vibrations per unit time measured in hertz frequency equation to calculate the frequency and/or period P=1/T or T=1/P What is the frequency in vibrations per second of a 50 Hz wave? the period? 50, 1/50 distance from the baseline to the crest of a wave amplitude distance from the top of one crest to the top of the next wavelength stuff the carries the wave i.e. water carries water waves, people carry stadium waves medium speed at which waves pass by a particular point wave speed wave speed only depends on the ________ type of medium what is the equation for wave speed? wave speed = frequency x wavelength wave speed of water 1 m/s wave speed of air 30 m/s wave speed of light 300,000,000 m/s shorter sound wavelengths have a lower/higher pitch higher shorter light wavelengths are ____ and higher wavelengths are ____ blue, red slower than the speed of sound subsonic faster than the speed of sound supersonic the mach # is.. speed of object/speed of sound side to side vibration in a direction perpendicular to the waves motion transverse waves water waves are transverse/longitudinal waves transverse back and forth vibration in a direction parallel to the waves longitudinal waves sound waves are transverse/longitudinal waves longitudinal when waves add together constructive and destructive interference wave pattern produced from interfering waves traveling in opposite directions standing waves the bell wave machine in class demonstrated.. standing waves the change in wavelength due to motion of the source Doppler Effect waves in front of a moving boat have a shorter/longer wavelength and a lower/higher frequency (pitch) shorter, higher sound waves have ____ & ____ regions compressions, rarefaction frequencies < 20 Hz infrasonic frequencies > 20,000 Hz ultrasonic human hearing range frequencies between 20 and 20,000 Hz speed of sound in air 340 m/s, 760 mph speed of sound varies with ____, ____, & ____ humidity, temperature, density study of sound properties acoustics when a sound wave strikes a surface it can be ____, ____, or ____ reflected, transmitted, absorbed re-echoed sound, multiple reflections of sound waves from walls reverberation bending of a wave refraction of sound sound travels slower/faster in warm air then in cool air faster sound waves bend toward/away cooler air toward the setting up of vibrations in an object by a vibrating force forced vibrations frequency at which an elastic object naturally tends to vibrate natural frequency at natural frequency, a minimum/maximum energy is required to produce a forced vibration minimum natural frequency of a body depends on its ____, ____, & ____ elasticity, size, shape the result of forced vibrations in a body when the applied frequency matches the natural frequency of the body resonance swinging your legs on a swing and the Tacoma Narrows Bridge accident are examples of.. resonance overlapping compressions of a sound wave will result in constructive/destructive interference and a louder/softer sound constructive, louder overlapping a compression and rarefaction results in constructive/destructive interference and a louder/softer sound destructive, softer the periodic variation in loudness of two sounds played together beats equal to the difference in the frequency of two sounds beat frequency What is the beat frequency of two waves with frequencies of 440 Hz and 445 Hz? 5 Hz an impression of the sound wave on a higher frequency radio wave modulation AM stands for ____ ____ amplitude modulation FM stands for ____ ____ frequency modulation What is the difference between noise and music? appearance of the waveform music has consistent/random waves and noise has consistent/random waves consistent, random the "highness" or "lowness" of a tone pitch corresponds to frequency pitch refers to the amplitude of the pressure variations in the sound wave intensity of sound physiological sensation directly related to the sound intensity loudness loudness is measured in.. bels 1 bel = __ decibels 10 increase the loudness by 10 db and you increase the intensity by __ 10 increase the loudness by 20 db and you increase the intensity by __ 100 characteristic of sound the allows us to distinguish between two musical instruments (aka timbre) quality one of the many frequencies present in a complex tone partial tones the lowest frequency of vibration fundamental frequency 1st harmonic the partial tone that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency harmonic a mathematical method that will resolve any periodic wave form into a series of simple sine waves Fourier analysis