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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What are the 5 types of parasites?

Prime time CNA
2. What are the 4 types of parasitic protozoas?
AFC sports
3. When you see fever and a stiff neck, what should you think of?
Meningitis or Naegleria Fowleri
4. What are the 2 Ameobas that cause human disease
1. Naegleria fowleri
Free-living amoeba
Highly fatal infections

2. Entamoeba histolytica
True parasite
Highly pathogenic, invasive disease
5. this highly pathogenic amoeba isAssociated with intestinal and extra-intestinal disease
Toxic megacolon
Abscesses in liver, brain, lung
Entamoeba histolytica

We ingest them in contaminated food, and water, they get in our feces and become mature cysts
6. Where is the likely entry point for Naegleria fowleri (little boy in the pond)
Enters though the olfactory neuroepithelium and can cause amebic meningoencephalitis in HEALTHY people

DONT swim in farm ponds
7. What is the cause of hydrocephalis and intracranial calcifications, and chorioretinitis in fetuses?
Toxoplasma gondii - a sporozoa
8. How can the mother become infected with Toxoplasma gondii?
Mom got it from the cat, fecal oocysts.
But of already had an older infection, and get another one while pregenant, very small chance of reaction?
9. What are some long term consequences of Toxoplasma gondii?
Deafness, visual impairment, learning diff, and mental retardation.
10. What parasite (flagellated protozoan) Considered by WHO to be 6th most important infectious disease in world - seen in afganistan?

What is the vector?
Leishmania sp (A US marine serving in Afghanistan developed an ulcerative lesion on the hand. The lesion began as a small papule, and was initially itchy. Within a few weeks it had enlarged and ulcerated, exuding thin, serous fluid.)

Sand flies
11. What are the three forms of the disease?

What is unusual about the reservior?
visceral, cutaneous, and mucocutaneous
L.Donovani and Tropica

Rural-wild and domestic canines; rodents
12. Where is visceral Leishmaniasis found?

Clinical Presentation?
90% of cases occur in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sudan and Brazil

Clinical manifestations
Fever, prostration, hepatosplenomegaly, weight loss, anemia, ascites
Liver failure
High mortality rate
13. Where is Cutaneous Leishmaniasis found?

Geographic distribution
Mediterranean, Equatorial Africa, Middle east, India,China

Clinical manifestations
Small papule at bite site
Progresses to large ulcer
Heals leaving large scar
14. Where is Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis found?

Geographic distribution
Areas of south Texas, Southeast Mexico, Central and South America

Clinical manifestations
Lesion begins at bite site
Invades nearby mucocutaneous areas
Can lead to destruction of mucous membranes of nose, mouth, throat
Case of Peace corps worker snorkeling in Malawi - tumor in spine
What did she have?
Shistosoma hematobium
16. Shistosoma hematobium is a Parasitic Trematode (AKA Fluke)
What are the 3 famous examples of parasisitic Trematodes?
Fasciola hepatica-
liver fluke
Chronic, intermittent biliary obstruction and inflammation

Schistosoma sp.
blood flukes
Abdominal pain, hepatosplenomegaly, bloody diarrhea
S. haemotobium can result in a transverse myelitis with flaccid paraplegia

Paragonimus westermani
Oriental lung fluke
Chronic cough, hemoptysis
17. There are Three kinds of Shistosomas? 2 have spines!
Schistosoma haematobium *
Schistosoma mansoni*
Schistosoma japonicum

this is second only to malaria in importance200 million people infected; 500 million at risk of infection
18. Before shistosoma becomes an adult worm, what is it called?

Where is it found?
carcariae - burrows though the skin and get a hole.

Africa, Brazil, SE Asia
18. What are the 2 clinical presentations of shistosomiasis?

Chronic illness depends on what?
1. itchy skin,
2. Serum sickness due to immune responce to egg production

Granulomantous leisons * interfere with organ funtions. MAc and T wall them off
19. Treatment and Control of Shistosome?

Education regarding disease acquisition
Improved sanitation
Bio-control agents (predatory snails)
Use of molluscicides
Drainage of marsh areas
20. A 4-year-old immigrant boy from Mexico developed a new onset seizure.
Imaging of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the parietal region
His serum was positive for antibodies to Taenia solium
What kind of organism is this?
How might the boy have become infected?
What other important organisms belong to this group?
Cestodes, aka Tape worm
different segments (proglottids) are shed in feces.
21. What are Examples of Parasitic Cestodes (Beef and Pork Tapeworm)
Taenia saginata- beef tapeworm
Taenia solium- pork tapeworm
Echinococcus granulosis
Echinococcus multilocularis
22. Intermediate and definitive host of
Taenia solium?
Pigs- intermediate hosts
Humans-definitive hosts
23. Can humans get this from eggs or the cyst?

clinical manifestaions?

In CNS, cause: seizures, hydrocephalis, cranial nerve damage, visual impairment
same treatment as shisto (Praziquantel)