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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Music
system of non-lexical (non-language)
patterned sounds that function as signs
Methodology
a system of methods used in a
particular area of study. How do we gather our
information?
Participant Observation
observing what’s going
on while being a part of what’s going on.
Etic
describes terms used to offer an “outsider’s”
explanation of culture - a general set of terms and
concepts that can be used to interpret other cultures as
well
Emic
describes an “insider’s” perspective, perceptions,
and explanations of what’s going on
Beat
• constant
• in the background - you can’t always hear it!
Rhythm
• arrangement of durations
• may be different lengths - not necessarily
constant - on or off the beat
Tempo
speed of the beat
Meter
organization of the beat by patterns of accents
Duple
Accents on 1 and 2 or 1 and 4
Triple
Accents on 1 and 3
Unmetered
Music without a steady beat or regular accents
Pitch
frequency of sound
Interval
distance between pitches
Scale
a collection of pitches
Timbre
aural “colors,” either instrumental or vocal
Aerophones
flutes, reeds, brass
Chordophones
string instruments (plucked,
hammered, bowed, strummed...)
Membranophones
most drums
Idiophones
self-vibrating (rattles, spoons,
wooden sticks)
Texture
the interaction of musical “lines”
Monophony
One line
Polyphony
If there is one important voice, refer to homophony. If there is more than one important voice, it is polyphony.
Homophony
homorhythmic and melody plus accompaniment
Heterophony
One line but players all play it differently
Art Music
patronized by powerful political,
aristocratic or religious groups, accorded higher
prestige or value than other music.
Popular Music
accorded less prestige or value
than art music, often closely connected to mass
media and processes of commodification.
Commodification
process by which a thing
becomes a commodity, something that has monetary
value and can be bought and sold
Bourgeoisie
e (landlords,
capitalists) control a factor
in production
Petite-bourgeoisie
control
a smaller factor (shop
owners, tradesmen)
Proletariat
have nothing to
sell but their labor
Ostinato
short, repeating
musical pattern that
occurs throughout a piece
or section of a piece
Chanter
the pipe of the bagpipe that has the double reed
Drones
single reed pipes of the bagpipe
The Enlightenment
• belief in reason
• belief in the progress of human society
• belief in more egalitarian forms of government
Treaty of Union
Scotland merges with England to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Nation
a group of people who share a common
language and common customs
Nationalism
the belief that the nation should
correspond to an independent political entity: the
nation-state
Cultural Nationalism
belief in the importance of
identifying, preserving, and displaying cultural forms that
are [thought to be] unique to a particular nation
Globalization
Process of interaction and integration
among people, companies, and governments of
different nations.
Proletariat
have nothing to
sell but their labor
Ostinato
short, repeating
musical pattern that
occurs throughout a piece
or section of a piece
Chanter
the pipe of the bagpipe that has the double reed
Drones
single reed pipes of the bagpipe
The Enlightenment
• belief in reason
• belief in the progress of human society
• belief in more egalitarian forms of government
Treaty of Union
Scotland merges with England to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Nation
a group of people who share a common
language and common customs
Nationalism
the belief that the nation should
correspond to an independent political entity: the
nation-state
Cultural Nationalism
belief in the importance of
identifying, preserving, and displaying cultural forms that
are [thought to be] unique to a particular nation
Globalization
Process of interaction and integration
among people, companies, and governments of
different nations.
Lumpen Proletariat
urban “underworlds”
Cosmopolitan Culture
ideas/
objects/perspectives/tastes that are found in scattered places
among particular groups who are linked by different forms of
media, contact, interchanges
Diaspora
1. Dispersal of community and collective suffering.
2. Troubled relationship between diasporic communities
and their host sociteties.
3. Strong sense of community that transcends national
frontiers.
4. Promotion of a return movement and (re)constitution of
a national homeland.
Punjab
straddles the border between
India and Pakistan
Dhol
(double-headed drum)
with thick stick and thin wand
Dholak
(double-headed drum)
hit with hands instead of sticks
Dancehall
form of reggae created in the the
late 1970s and 1980s, characterized by slow
speeds and sparse textures
“bhangramuffin”
bhangra + raggamuffin
Raggamuffin
or ragga - form of dancehall
beginning in mid-1980s in which the music is
primarily electronic, often featuring sampling
“patwa"
mix of
Punjabi, English, and Jamaicanaccented English
Composition
music that is relatively fixed, relatively
predetermined, possessing a specific and recognizable
identity
Improvisation
music that is relatively un-fixed, not
predetermined, created during the moment of
performance to a greater degree than a composition
Elites
hereditary rulers and their families
Guru
teacher
Raga
melodic mode
Tala
rhythmic modes
Alap
unmetered “exploration” of
the raga
Jor
begins to get more rhythmic (
Jhala
rhythmic
alternation between melody and
drone strings on the sarod
Tinhai
melodic “hook” repeated three
times that signals the tabla
Gat
metered, pre-composed
melody skeleton used as a basis
for melodic improvisation
Tala
counterpart of raga(rhythmic
mode/cycle)
Bols
drum syllables
Gharan
(“house, family”) - a particular
style or tradition, usually named after its place of origin
Global Imagination
imagining “the Other” means new
ways of imaging yourself
Gamelan
denotes “ensemble”
Syncretic
mixing beliefs
Dangdut
pop music genre, emerged
in the 1970s
Krakatau(group)
synthesis of
jazz fusion (jazz and rock
elements) with Sundanese (West
Javanese) gamelan - founded in
1980s