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89 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Explain persistence of vision
the human brain retains a visual imprint for a fraction of a second, so the continuous projection of still images appear to be an image of a single movement= the phi phenommenon
Cinematography
motion-picture photography... writing in movement
shot
continuous point of view or image that does not break, change, or cut to another point of view or image
point of view
the position from which something is filmed
subjective point of view
re-creates the perspective of a character
objective point of view
represents the more impersonal perspective of the camera
framing
contains, limits, and directs the point of view
canted frame
framing that appears unbalanced or askew
depth of field
range or distance before and behind the main focus
film stock
unexposed film consisting of a flexible backing or base and a light-sensitive emulsion
gauge
describes the width of film stock
film speed
the rate at which moving images are recorded
Technicolor
color processing that uses 3 strips of film to transfer colors directly onto a single image
camera lens
the piece of curved glass that redirects light rays in order to focus and shape images
focal length
the distance from the center of the lens to the point where light rays meet in sharp focus
wide-angle lens
lens less than 35mm in focal length, allows cinematographers to explore a depth of field that could show different visual planes simultaneously
widescreen processes
changed the film's aspect ratio by dramatically widening it
telephoto lens
lens with a focal length of at least 75mm and capable of magnifying and flattening distant objects
steadicam
camera stabilization device that allows the operator to make smooth, rapid movements
aspect ratio
describes the width and height of the film frame as it appears on a movie screen or TV monitor.
-academy ratio= 1:33:1
-US widescreen ratio= 1:85:1
letterboxed
blocking off the top and bottom strips of the TV frame to accommodate a smaller version of the widescreen image
masks
attachments to the camera that cut off portions of the frame so that part of the image is black
iris shot
masks the frame so that only a small circular piece of the image is seen
onscreen space vs offscreen space
Onscreen space refers to the space visible in the frame of an image, while offscreen space is the implied space that exists outside the image
overhead shot
aka crane shot, depicts the action or subject from high above
point-of-view shots
defined as shots that re-create the perspective of a character
shallow focus
narrow range of field is focused
rack focus
the focus shifts rapidly from one object to another
reframing
the movement of the frame from one position to another within a single continuous shot
pan
moves the frame from side to side w/ out changing the position or axis of the camera
traveling shot
tracking shot-changes the position of the p of v by moving forward or backward or around the subject
dolly shot-camera is moved on a dolly
parallelism
occurs when the soundtrack and image "say the same thing"
counterpoint sound
when two different meanings are implied by these elements
source music
diegetic music, like the shot of a band playing at a party
semi-diegetic sound/ internal diegetic sound
thoughts of a character spoken aloud
looping
recording on a loop of film that is replayed and layered, filling in the sound and exceeding realistic reproduction
sound designer
plans and directs te overall sound through to the final mix
direct sound
sound captured directly from its source
reflected sound
captured sounds that bounce from the walls and sets, usually to give some sense of space
sound recordist/ production mixer
combines these different sources during filming, adjusting their relative volume or balance
sound editing
interacts with the image track to create rhythmic relationships, establish connections between sound and onscreen sources, and smooth or mark trasitions
sound bridge
when a sound carries over a visual transition in a film
spotting
when the directer consults with the composer and the picture and sound editiors to determine where music and effects will be added
postsynchronous sound
recorded after the fact and then synchronized with onscreen sources, often preferrred to the dialogue used in the final mix
automated dialogue replacement (ADR)
actors watch the film footage and re-record their lines to be dubbed into the soundtrack
room tone
the aural properties of a location when nothing is happening
sound perspective
refers to the apparent distance of a sound source
overlapping dialogue
mixing characters' speech simultaneously
talking heads
on camera interviews usually shot in medium close-up
sychronization
visible coordination of the voice with the body from which it is emanating
background music/ underscoring
music underscores what is happening dramatically
cue
a piece of music composed for a particular place in a film
motives
themes assigned to particular figures
click track
hole punched in the film to keep the beat of te action
invisibility
refers to the predominance of nondiegetic music and to the fact that the technical apparatus that produces film music is never seen
inaudibility
dictates that conscious attention shouldn't be paid to the score
narrative cueing
refers to how music tells us what is happening in the plot
stingers
sounds that force us to notce the significance of something onscreen
mickey-mousing
over illustrating the action through the score, such as accompanying a character walking on tip-toe with plucked strings
music supervisor
selects and secures the rights for songs to be used in films
sound continuity
describes the range of scoring, sound recoording, mixing, and playback processes that strive for the unification of meaning and experience by subordinating sound to the aims of the narrative
diegisis of film
story world of the film, including all that occurs in the film and all that could possibly occur
diegetic sound
emerges fromt the story world of the film
non-diegetic sound
soundtrack music that the characters cannot hear
sound designers
manipulate both sound and silence
tambour
sound quality
shot
a continuous length of film
in-camera editing
stop the film in the camera and resume after rearranging the mise-en-scene
shooting ratio
length of film shot and that which is used in the finished proect
coverage
ensuring that a number of shots of a particular scene are take from different angles and distances
master shot
continuous shot of the scen's entire action
storyboards
laid out each scene shot-by-shot
dailies
each days shooting
takes
filmed versions of each shot
post-production
editor begins to assemble the selected takes of a shot into a rough cut
rough cut
juxtaposing one shot with the next and shaping these linkages into larger units that may correspond to narrative sections
splice
physical join in the film
work print
material the editor works with
cut
the break and common border that seperate 2 shots from 2 different pieces of film
crosscutting
cuts back and forth between actions in seperate spaces
parallel editing
alternating beween two or more strands of simultaneous action
motage
the french word for editing that has come to signify a style emphasizing the breaks and contrasts between images joined by a cut
verisimiltude
the quality of fictional representations athat allows the readers of viewers to accept a consturcted world, its events its characters
continuity editing
a system that uses cuts and other transitions to estalish verisimiltude and to tell stories efficiently
nondiegetic insert
insert that breaks continuity
overlapping editing
we are shown 2 shots of the same action
eyeline match
character is looking at ina a screen position that matches the gaze
reaction shots
depict a character's reponse to something that viewers also see
continuity style
refers to an even broader array of technical choices that support this principle of effacing technique to clarify the narrative and its human motivation