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43 Cards in this Set

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Problem of Industrialized Nations
Increased weight control prob
Dangers of being overweight
inc CHD
inc Hypertension
inc kidney disease
overweight vs. overfat
can be overweight yet fit
percent of dieters = succesful
5%
effects of time on dieting
100% lose weight initially

most gain it back

= dieting doesnt work
1 lb = ?? kcal
3500 kcal - amount to lose one pound
Set point theory
body is @ equilibrium

if you lose weight the body tries to get back to normal (set point)

note: exercise can change set point
problem w/ restriction calories
you expend less energy

due to idea of survival - body slows down to maintain calories
effects of exercise intensity on hunger
sedentary = more hungry than w/ moderate exercise

but w/ very high - hunger is the highest
effect of age on weight control
older = harder to control
ergogenic aid definition
any substance (ate, drank or applied) or procedure that might improve performance
the basic erogenic aid
eating / drinking properly
hawthorn effect
if someone knows they are being studied, the will act differently
requirements for a placebo drug
must look, feel, and taste the same
double blind study
both groups dont know if they are getting the drug
alkaline salts
anti-acid buffer - blood pH

eg) bicarbonate

fix (raise) the pH

useful for brief high intensity exercise

more useful in untrained
analgesics
pain suppression

eg aspirin

plus blocks ffa release thus reducing energy from fat (bad for endurance)

problems: masks pain / makes injury worse
caffeine
improves FFA utilization thus spares musce glycogen

may reduce fatigues perception

implications: impairs myocardiac circulation
carb loading
stages

1 - deplete - one week priort to competition - run hard/ eat no carbs

2 load carbs - eat carbs increase glycogen
protein loading
not effective to gain mass
potential hazard
anabolic steroids
increase muscle mass

developed to be used in AIDS for atrophy

effects = short term

prob: inc in cardiovas disease, prostate canceer, anger

and decrease in connective tissure strength and growth plates close
creatine
floor vs. ceiling effect

benefits - cp used for energy

inc muscle strenght

prob - dehydration
kidney overload
ephedra
sympothorinetic drug

-mimics sympathetic nervous system

stimulates heart - beats faster

use in weight control - increase RMR

no ergogenic effect
androstenedione (andro)
inc testosterone to inc muscle strength

not sure of effectiveness
growth hormone
no scientifi evidence of benefit
blood doping
take blood out - rebuild and reinject

more plasma and more rbc
erythropoinetin
inc rede blood cells - helps endurance

health issues - blood clotting because is too thick
ineffective aids
co q10
tea
peppermint
alcohol
amino acids
ginseng
arginine
ribose
beta blockers
shtp
hmb
ala
chromium
biomechanics definition
the study of physical principles applied to biological systems

eg

sport biomechanics - improve perf

rehab
padding/prevention/protection
muscle/ tissue mechanics
rules of biomechanics = laws of motion
law of inertia
law of acceleration
law of reaction/action
law of inertia
body @ rest or in motion will continue unless acted on by force
law of acceleration
objects accelerate in relation to force F = ma
law of action/reaction
for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
center of mass
location where body mass is in balance

changes w/ change in postion
kinematics def
temporal and spatial components of movement

displacement
velocity = displacemtn / time
acceleration = velocity /time
kinetics def
forces during movement

external = head
internal = bone on bone
tools used in biomechanics
electrogoniometer - records joint angles

plethysmograph

computerized video analysis
running movement
linear vs. rotational movement

converting rotation to linear
stride cycle
swing phase - foot off ground

support phase - foot on ground
--heel strike - foot/ground contact
description of running speed
stride length - length of one strke - heel strike to heel strike

stride frequency - strides/sec

speed = stride length x frequency
different kind of foot strike
rear foot strike

mid foot striker - land on middle and slight rock back
cetner of pressure measurements - use
diabetic stuff
running economy
minimize vertical COM bobbing up and down - GOOD

braking action - occcurs if foot hits ground ahead of COM