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90 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
David Garrick
People had sat onstage and talked to the actors, but he banished the spectators from the stage in 1762 (this was met with a lot of resistance, as people liked their moment of fame)
Johan Wolfgang von Goethe
Forbid the audience to do anything but applaud or withhold applause (1796)
Had people arrested if they misbehaved
Richard Wagner
1876- Idea of a more democratic theatre with no box, pit, or gallery
Wanted a distinct separation of audience and stage with pit creating distance
Susan Bennett
Horizon of expectations: set of ideas and values each audience brings to a show (varies from audience to audience and culture to culture)
Victor Turner
Makes this difference clear. Although theatre may look like ritual, it does not alter the community (although people may feel affected)
God from a machine—crane used to fly gods—an emotional part in the play
Dues ex machina
platform extends to wheel out bloody things
behind orchestra and actors
where the audience watches from and sits
Plays spread through the year had to be performed at a single event
Removal from the church gave more freedom to make performances more elaborate
Vernacular instead of Latin
Cycle Plays
Performed whole Bible
Trade guilds
Just a few actors/playlet
Mostly on pageant wagons
Traveled around to York, Chester, Wakefield (cycles)
France and Germany
Dealt with the life of Christ
Large group of actors for whole production
Mostly stationary
Open air
Outside of London
Adult companies
In London
Child companies
standing room
seats off to the side
roof over stage
the heavens
wall at back of stage
inner below
“ancient” indicated someone out of fashion and only sometimes another time period
“antique” for certain classical figures
fantasy characters such as witches or ghosts
specific characters (Robin Hood, Falstaff)
ethnic (Moors, Jews, Spaniards)
Focus on the development of the protagonist
Developed the “chronicle” or history play (can’t get in trouble with history)
Helped perfect blank verse
38 plays (comedy, tragedy, history)
early point of attack
several lines of action
large number and variety of incidents
time and space used freely—a sense of ongoing life behind the scenes
large range and number of characters
varied language
subjects from many sources
Ben Johnson
Considered the best after Shakespeare, but he thought he was better
Influential in his time
Actor turned playwright
Followed the rules more, but altered them
Wrote many masques
Poet laureate
Plays were published—something usually reserved for poets
His plays were limited: purpose to reform human behavior, concentrated on fables of contemporary types
More harshly moralistic than Shakespeare
Called comedy of humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, black bile
Jacobean and Caroline Dramatists
After 1610 a significant change in English drama
More technically proficient, but subjects shocking rather than profound
Subject matter went to “thrill”
Aristotle Poetics—lost until the fall of Constantinople
Unities of time, place, AND action
No mixing of genres
Five acts
Decorum: characters must behave according to universal truths
Neo-classical ideal
Proscenium: normal stage in front, audience in back
¾ Thrust: action on three of four sides
Arena: theatre in the round
Flexible: movable platforms
separation of genres
Comedy: the imitation of characters of low birth
Tragedy: the imitation of characters of noble birth
points of attack
Early point of attack (Romeo and Juliet)- not much has happened yet in the story in relation to when the play begins
Late point of attack (Oedipus)- most of the story has happened already. When the play starts, the story is toward the end
Banned performances of unlicensed work
Forbade religious or political drama
Made local officials responsible for performance in their towns
1570 the suppression of cycle plays
1572 illegal for anyone under rank of Baron to run a troupe—traveling performances could perform by obtaining a license from 2 justices
1574 Master of Revels was licenser of all plays and companies
Development of secular entertainment
Elizabeth I
School Drama (people studying Latin and writing plays)
Inns of court (law students)
transitional drama
elements of theatre
actor, play, audience
categories of culture
popular culture, elitist culture
someone acts like they’re swimming and you can believe there is water
willing suspension of reality
knowing when actors die that they aren't really dead
Esthetic distance
feeling for characters
making judgments (asking 6 questions)
live shows make the experience different every time
qualities of theatre
Ephemeral: live shows make the experience different every time
Complexity of its Means
Immediate: you must be present to capture its true essence (tapes are different)
Greek audience (Hellenistic)
Sat 14,000
Arena built into hillside
Special section for women if they came
Each tribe had its own section
Special seat front and center for the Priest of Dionysus and other VIPs
Everyone came
lasted all day
Elizabethan stage
Seated 1500
No intermission
Many items for sale during show
Cheaper to stand in the yard
Lord’s rooms expensive and used for prostitutes
layers of text
Written dramatic texts that could be interpreted in different ways by the directors, actors, and designers
Social context: the surrounding cultural environment that creates a horizon of expectations (theatre ideologies)
origins basic trajectory
Ritual with performance elements
Some societies began to perform stories that were separate from the ritual (ritual dramas)
Early theatre was performed during religious festivals
Later some societies adopted a theatrical art separate from religion or ritual
circular stage where chorus is
word origins
Tragedy- “goat song” (drank wine out of goat skins or a goat was a prize)
Dithyramb- choral singing and dancing (in honor of Dionysus)
534 BCE- prize established for best tragedy
Thespis was the first to win this prize
Story of stepping out from chorus was from Horace; the particular type of tragedy was new
ancient greece
Peisistratus: one of the tyrants whose successors were overthrown
classical greece
Return to Solonian Democracy and Athenian Justice
“tyrant” is the worst insult. Court case where he starts out as a judge and ends up on trial
Overconfident and bad temper
One weakness that is the undoing of the protagonist (often it is having too much of a quality)
Aristotle the poetics
We developed tragedy because of the desire to imitate and the sense of rhythm
components of plot (tragedy)
Events must evoke terror and pity—downfall of a relatively good person through some error of weakness (tied to the kind of character)
Peripeteia: change brought about by recognition (someone like you who is relatively good but flawed causes the audience to feel sorry when the bad thing happens which makes you examine your own weaknesses so that it doesn’t happen to you
Conflict should be between those who are dear to one another
change brought about by recognition
The Unities
action, time (and place)
Italian contributions
rules of writing plays, scene-shifting technology, comedia
liturgical drama
Commemoration of Biblical Event associated with days of the church calendar
Performance moved outside between 1200 and 1350
Corpus Christi- a calendar event in the summer
Easter, crucifixion birth of Christ, Three Kings, Slaughter of the innocents
Use of places within the church to act (mansions and platea)
miracle plays
Often written as part of an ongoing argument about church doctrine—to show that the Host is really the body of Christ, etc.
morality plays
Castle of perseverance- shows the progress of humankind from birth to death and judgment (36 characters)
entertainment presented at court
holiday season skits presented at court during a costume party (troupes would also go door to door for money)
decline of church drama
Protestants outlawed religious performances
Catholics withdrew their support as well
Secular drama grew in popularity
Italian Renaissance
Interest in Roman drama
In universities Latin plays were written
1429: 12 of Plautus’ lost plays were rediscovered
1453: fall of Constantinople
1465: introduction of printing made it easy to disseminate classical texts
1472-1518: all known Greek and Roman plays were published and distributed (printing press)
Rise of deMedici family (double entry accounting)
Cosmopolitanism changes power of the church
Understanding that there was a tradition predating church
Purity of type- comedy, tragedy, pastoral
The Unities and Horace’s 5 act structure
Scene shifting technology
Play within 24 hours set in same town
Intermezzi didn’t have to follow these rules
appearance of truth—reality, morality, and generality
stuff onstage has to be feasible in real life (no ghosts)
must teach a moral lesson
abstractions as a key to truth, to find characteristics, which are universal, not the trivial or accidental
Historical subjects, biblical subjects, foreign novels
Inspired by the study of classics and were written at Cambridge, Eton, Oxford
University Wits helped develop elegant prose, romantic comedies, complex protagonists, ideas of humanism, black verse-iambic pentameter (not rhymed)
school dramas
Roman Academy began to stage some of the Roman texts
Rendering 3d objects on 2d space
DaVinci saw space as spherical
perspective painting
Tragic, comic, pastoral scene sketches
Scenery on raked position
Drop and angled wing
If a person was in the scenery, they would look like a giant in the spectacle
Manual for constructing theatrical scenes and machines
Using periaktoi and tongue and groove system (rolling waves)
Helped establish flat wings-running a cord from viewpoint
Groove system easier
Chariot and pole system to change wing, drop and border at once
Rise of Domestic Drama
Growing middle class (1700s) and restoration theatre doesn’t respect their views
Showed how profane, immoral, sneaky are rewarded, made fun of clergy plays should be fixed
Jeremy Collier England
Talk of adding genres—domestic tragedy and comedy concerned with virtue
Voltaire likes Shakespeare but wishes he was French
in France
Charles II restored to the throne after staying in France
England embraces the Neoclassical ideal
“restoration comedy” observes the Unities but is bawdy and licentious (sexual)
women on stage now as a rule
in England
theologian, denounced theatre in 3rd century
Council of Carthage
398. excommuniation for anyone attending a performance on a holy day
(actors) denied sacrament
Trullan Council
692. forbid theatre, mime, and other spectacles
lowest in hierarchy. most positive character in comedia. wants to work very little while eating, sleeping, and having women. bad if gets the power.
devil helped him get out of his shell. has deformations which prevent people from loving him. arlecchino's cousin
strong woman who knows what she wants. everyone falls in love with her for she is beautiful and charming. lower class. arlecchino gets her. solves the problem.
dirty businesses. thinks he's better than arlecchino because he thinks he used to be arlecchino. nervous tick/stutter. not happy in his skin
rich guy, complains about losers. merchant who opened a carnival puts a stick with a lion on it into the ground. wants to keep all the money. wants colombina.
knight, proud, unemployed (looking for soldiers)
pig, may be lawyer or doctor, intelligence to impress but doesn't know how to read or write, wants colombina
lovers, could be male or female, young or old. beautiful. know nothing about the world
in between god and character, gives hope of justice. know something we don't know.
9th character