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39 Cards in this Set

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Define Scientific Notation.
Scientific Notation expresses a number as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and the appropriate power of 10.
What is the easiest way to determine the power of 10?
count the number of places the decimal place must move to have a decimal between 1 and 10.

Left is Positive. LIP
Right is negative - RIN
What are the two most widely used measuring systems?
English and Metric.
Which measuring system is poreferred for scientific work?
Metric
What is SI (Measuring system)?
The International system - 1960 an international agrrement developed this system of units, based on Metric system.
Define these units:

M
Mega

1,000,000

or


10 to the 6th
Define these units:

c
centi


.01 or 10 tot he -2
Define these units:

d
deci


.1 or 10 to the -1
Define these units:

k
Kilo

1,000


or 10 to the 3rd
Define these units:

m
milli


.001 or 10 to the -3
Define these units:

n
nano

.000000001 or 10 to the -9
Define these units:

u
micro


.000001 or 10 to the -6
Mass is measured in what unit?
kilogram kg
Length is measured in what unit?
meter m
Time is measured in what unit?
second s
Temperature is measured in what unit?
Kelvin K
What is Volume?
the amount of 3 dimensional space occupied by a substance.
What is Mass?
the quantity of matter present in an object.
What is density?
the amount of matter present in a given volume of substance.

= mass/volume
What is measurement uncertainty?
This occurs on the smallest digit, estimating its worth.
When considering uncertain measurements, custom dictates that we document ___________.
all certain digits and the first uncertain digit
Uncertain digits are assumed to be accurate _____________ unless indicated otherwise.
+ or - 1
What are the three rules for counting significant figures?
Non-zero integers.
Zeroes.
Exact numbers.
What are the rules for counting significant figures for non-Zero integers?
Always count as significant figures.
What are the rules for counting significant figures of exact numbers?
Unlimited number of significant figures.
What are the rules for counting significant figures of Zeros?
1. Leading zeros - never count
2. Captive Zeros - Always count
3. Trailing zeros - count only if number has a decimal point.
How do you determine the significant figures in Addition and subtraction?
the limiting term is the one with the smallest number of decimal places.
What is a conversion factor?
a ratio of the 2 parts of the statements that relates the 2 units.

An equivalence statement.
How do you determine the significant figures in multiplicaiton or division?
The result has the same number of significant figures as the smallest numbers.

This is limiting, in that the smallest number limits the number of sig figures.
How do we choose a conversion factor?
We select the one that will cancel out all units except the one we want to be left with.
What are the 2 advantages of scientific notation?
1. The # of sig figures can be determined easily

2. fewer numbers needed to indicate large and small numebrs.
What is dimensional Analysis?
Changing from one unit to another by use of conversion factors.
Identify the following for the celsius scale:
1. Who uses
2. boiling temp
3. freezing temp
4. normal body temp.
1. Canada and Europe
2. 100
3. 0
4. 37
Identify the following for the farenheit scale:
1. Who uses
2. boiling temp
3. freezing temp
4. normal body temp.
1. US and Great britain
2. 212
3. 32
4. 98.6
Identify the following for the kelvin scale:
1. Who uses
2. boiling temp
3. freezing temp
4. normal body temp.
1. Science
2. 373 k
3. 273 k
4. 310
How does farenheit scale differ from both the celsius and kelvin scales?
Farenheit scale has smaller degrees. Note from freezing to boiling for C and K is 100 degrees, but 180 for f.

All three scales have different 0 points.
How do you convert between Kelvin and Celsius?
Temp in C = Temp in K - 273
or
Temp in K = Temp in C + 273
How do you convert between Farenheit and Celsius?
Temp of f = 1.8 x (temp of C) + 32.

Temp of C = Temp of F - 32 / 1.8
What is specific gravity
- the ratio of the density of a given liquid to the density of water at 4 degrees C.

Because it is a ratio of densities, specific gravities has no units.