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73 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Ratings
A popularity contest for the media. A tool to deliver audiences to advertisers.
Popularity
Media treats this as unimportant and stupid, however, when popularity is applied to competition, you get the lowest common denominator.
Lowest Common Denominator
"Average Joe"
Arbitron
One of the major ratings firms. Primary firm providing radio market ratings. Looks at 268 radio markets. Serves on local level. Uses mainly diaries.
RADAR
Radio's all dimension audience research. Serves on national network markets. Uses telephone recall interviews.
Nielson
One of the major ratings firms. Gathers and publishes television data for virtually all tv markets. Focuses on local markets.
National Station Index (NSI)
Covers 210 LOCAL markets - 162 use written diaries, 48 use a combonation of diary/passive household meters. Also covers NETWORKS - a report of tv ratings in what is called "pocket piece".
Casandra
Provides detailed audience demographic information for both first-run & off-network syndicated programs. Also allows measure on similar data on both lead-in and lead-out programs
Sweep Weeks (Sweeps)
All markets' ratings are measured four times a year in four-week-long time periods.
Revenues
The money the firms make.
Diaries
Written method for daily gathering of most local market data. Separate ones are given for Aribitron (12+) and Nielson.
Diary Fatigue
Audience members start off strong, writing down accordingly and accurately, and then stop. So, at the end most is made up.
Passive Household Meter (Nielson Audimeter)
A black box that automatically records when the set is on and to which channel it is tuned. (Not network) Problem - Doesn't show if someone is actually watching.
Peoplemeter
Keeps a record of reciever use. Requires each viewer to "check in" and "check out" by pushing a special handset button.
Passive Peoplemeter
Uses computerized image recognition to "recognize" regular "family" viewers. The device could actually tell when a viewer was watching tv. Problem - Cannot distinguish between people and animals (pets).
Coincidental Telephone Interviews
Researchers ask respondents what they are listening to or watching at that moment. Problem - Must use multiple calls to establish media use patterns.
Telephone Recall
Used by RADAR to collect samples daily over a period of 7 days. Asks respondents to use their memory of what they were listening to.
Personal Interviews
People are questioned on the street or in shopping centers, or sometimes at stoplights for car radio listening. Problem - Cannot be projected to the general population because the samples are not all representative.
Sampling
Studying some people to represent the behavior of all.
Three Aspects of Sampling
Behavior, Time, & Number of People
Saturation
The point in sampling where results begin to repeat.
Sampling Error
Expected; one cannot represent everyone, people will be missed
Non-sampling Error
Comes from mistakes made during research, Bias.
ADI
Area of dominant influence. (Arbitron) System used for defining Radio markets.
DMA
Designated market area. (Nielson) System used for defining TV markets.
Household
Logical Unit of Measure.
Rating
Estimate of the number of hhs tuned into a specific channel, expressed as a percentage of available hhs (everyone who owns a tv). For those who have a TV.
Share
estimate of the nuber of households (or persons for radio) tuned into a given channel, expressed as a percentage of those households (or persons) actually using their recievers at that time. For those who have a TV on.
HUT
Households using tv.
PUR
Persons using radio.
Focus Groups
Small panels used to gain insights about people's motivations through informal discussion interview sessions.
Program Analyzer
A device first developed in the 1940s and now thoroughly computerized - enables test-group members to express favorable, neutral, or unfavorable reactions by pushing buttons at regular intervals on cue. Tests a large group of people immediately.
Theater Tests
Sometimes called auditorium testing. The movie industry uses previews to gauge audience response.
Physiological Testing
Reactions such as changes in brain waves, eye movement, eye pupil dilation, breathing rates, pulse rates, voice quality, perspiration, and sitting position (the squirm test) are measured.
Underlying Assumption
Media has some type of effect, be it positive, negative, or even persuasive.
Rhetoric Propaganda
Bullets of information - misinformation aimed at passive groups; Target audience; Hits on a Website; Execute campaigns.
Hypodermic-Injection Theory
The 1920s concept of media impact saw messages as so many bullets of information (or misinformation) aimed at passive groups. However, this idea was too simplistic because different people have different experiences.
Two-Step Flow
Hypothesis of media influence. In the 1940s, personal influence of opinion leaders, as contrasted with media's inpersonal influence - media influence often passes through leaders to followers rather than to all individuals directly.
Intervening Variable
Factors that come between messages and effects, such as Opinion Leaders.
Selective Exposure
People pay attention to messages that fit their established opinions and ignore those that don't. Media tends to reinforce existing views rather than convert people to new ones.
Selective Perception
This variable shows that people interpret messages based on their opinions and attitudes rather than receiving them passively.
Congruence Theory
A person's internal state of mind is usually in balance. A message that contradicts established opinions causes dissonance or imbalance.
Regaining Balance
Reject the message, distort the message to fit existing mindset, adjust the balance by accepting the new idea, conversion to new point of view.
Five Elements to Analyze for Effects Research
1) Originators of messages, 2) Contents of messages, 3) Channels through which the messages travel, 4) Audiences that receive messages, 5) Effects of messages.
Gatekeepers
Sources and shapers of media content.
Sample Surveys
Uses opinion polls and audience rating reports. Tell nothing about the causes of tuning.
Content Analysis
Breaks down, categorizes, enumerates, and interprets message content.
Laboratory Experiments
Creates controlled environments with artificial situations.
Field Studies
Record behavior in the "real world" without unduly intruding on or otherwise influencing participants.
Ethnographic Studies
Researcher becomes part of the group being studied, and this participant observation over extended time periods allows a realistic "window" on media consumption patterns to develop, along with some sense of subtle media effects.
Gatekeeping
The selection, placement, and editing of information.
Agenda Setting
Selection and Ranking as a result of gatekeeping. Attention to new items and deletion of the old.
Status Conferral
An event's very appearance on the air gives it importance.
Media News Staging
When News programs set up fake events for the camera to create a more dramatic story. Even though unethical, it happens.
Socialization
The all-important process that turns a squalling infant into a functioning member of society. Occurs intensively during the first few years of life. Pro-social and Anti-social effects. Positive element in the lives of the elderly, homebound, etc. because TV provides characters as friends and role models.
"Glow-and-Flow" Principle
TV and the act of viewing are the primary allures for audiences rather than the programming itself.
Bobo Doll Research
The idea that researchers were able to "prove" the link between violence viewing and violent behavior in experiments with kids. (ie. Beavis and Butthead)
George Gerbner
Conducted annual analysis of television violence. Found that animated cartoons had a higher percentage of violent acts than any other program category.
Anxiety Effect
Theory that violence in programs cause viewers to become nervous because they tend to see the real world in terms of their television experience; especially elderly, poor, and black people.
Sanitization Hypothesis
Holds that self-imposed program codes cause television to depict violence unrealistically because graphic literalness would encounter viewer backlash. So viewers become desensitized to violence in reality.
Sythesizing of Wants
Advertising does not just provide information to a consumer, but it also creates a desire for unnecessary material possessions.
Situational Comedies
Creates a group of engaging characters who find themselves in a particular situation - often a family setting. Plots spring from the way characters react to a new source of tension injected into the situation.
Slobcom
Less-than-ideal family situations.
Dramas
Crime, Medical, Legal shows that have major problems to resolve during the course of an episode.
Soap Operas
5-7 more commercial minutes per hour than primetime programs. Has a warped extension of time, separate yet parrallel plotlines operating simultaneously, eventually intertwining.
Sports Programming
Major success in delivering a hard-to-reach male demographic. Becoming increasingly popular.
Children's Programming
Uses cartoons as advertising.
Network TV News
Infected by show business.
Radio Netork Programs
Not common, but some are still popular. Howard Stern, Rush Limbaugh, Love Lines, etc.
Off-Network Syndication
After having completed their contractual network runs, network entertainment programs revert to their owners, who then make them available for licensing to broadcast stations or cable networks as off-network syndicated programs.
First-Run Syndication
Shows that never appeared on a network are brand new when first sold to stations.
Local
News casts, some talk shows, but usually bigger markets. Public access on cable.
Internet
Often duplicates broadcast transmission. Increasingly unique programming in recent years.