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47 Cards in this Set

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______ is a trapped charge dating technique that is used on anything mineral heated to more than 500 degrees celsius (burnt stone artifacts, ceramics).
Thermoluminescence.
_____ ______ ______ is a trapped charge dating technique that is used to date sediments. The age is the time elapsed between the last time a few moments exposure to sunlight reset the clock to zero and the present.
Optically stimulated luminescence.
_____ ______ ______ is a trapped charge dating technique that can be used to date teeth that are beyond the range of radiocarbon dating.
Electron spin resonance.
What is the centuries old linen cloth that bears the image of a crucified man -- that many believed to be Jesus?
The Shroud of Turin. AMS dating proved the Jesus theory false because it proved that the flax used to make the cloth was dated to long after Jesus had died.
____ _____ _____ is a radiocarbon dating technique that is a way to obtain radiocarbon dates from samples that are far smaller than that needed fro standard radiocarbon dating. Researchers use the ___ _____ _____ to count all the decaying C14 atoms.
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry; accelerator-based mass spectrometer.
What is the technique used to date the formation of a layer of rock that monitors the decay of potassium (K-40) into argon gas (AR-40).
Potassium-argon dating.
What is the dating technique that relies on the fact that a measurable rind grows at a known rate on the surface of the rock formation until it is freshly exposed, such as by a break or flaking? Is it favored?
Obsidian hydration. Yes, it is a favorite of archaeologists because it is relatively secure and inexpensive.
What technique, other than C14 dating, dates the fossil itself? What are its weaknesses?
Amino acid dating. It's no able to produce dates purely from the data alone, and the rate of the process is too variable so it has to depend on standardization by other techniques.
___ _____ _____ are commonly used because of their low solubilities and assumed resistance to fractionation in supracrystal environments.
Rare earth elements.
___ ____ ____ is the date after which a stratum or feature must have been deposited or created.
Terminus post quem.
____ _____ ___ is the statistical technique for combining the median age of manufacture for temporally significant pottery types to estimate the age of a feature.
Mean ceramic date.
Based on whose "A Guide to Artifacts in Colonial America" did the model of mean ceramic date include selected ceramic types defined by attributes of form, decoration, surface finish, and hardness?
Noel Hume's.
The _____ was a submerged submarine that was found buried beneath sediment at the bottom of the ocean by the use of magnetometer.
Hunley
A good typology must be ____ and _____ because the result should be replicable by any trained observer.
Objective and explicit.
The ____ _____ is the reductive process of stone tool manufacture results in a continuous change in the formal tool shape. Different artifact types are created through successive resharpening of tools.
Frison effect.
A _____ _____ is a region with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities.
Culture area.
What is the methodology developed by W.D. Strong in the 1930s that involves taking a site for which there are historical accounts relating to recent periods of occupation and excavating it to establish continuity?
Direct historical perspective.
What was the name of the bison kill site that was utilized by Paleo-Indian cultures that resided in this area from 9000-6000 B.C.?
Olsen-Chubbock site
What is the name f the area in NW Nebraska, where the remains of about 500 bison and 21 spear points were found and was dated to about 9500 radiocarbon years old by AMS dating?
Hudson-Meng bison bonebed site.
What is the site located in SW Texas that contains the remains of the N.A. mass-kill hunting technique used to kill bison by driving the bison over a cliff and dragging 500 of them to a processing area?
Bonfire shelter.
What is disarticulation?
Basically amputation -- it refers to the amputation of bison parts by the N.A.
Why did Plains Indians break open bison skulls when they killed them?
To use their brains for tanning hides.
Why do archaeologists participate in artifact replication?
To learn more about the past technology.
_____ using pressure, shapes and refines the projectile point.
Flaking.
____ is another technique used in making tools that involves using other stones to shape a projectile point by banging them against one another.
Knapping.
Who was the proposed last wild native american of the Yashi tribe?
Ishi.
When a tool is made, usually a piece will break off (called the ____) of the main, bigger piece (called the ____).
Flake, core.
Who was an important archaeologist and scholar that helped us understand how prehistoric people made arrowheads and other stone tools; expert in lithic technology?
Donald Crabtree.
A ____ ____ is often used in flintknapping to remove blades from core.
Chest crutch.
T or F: Metal tools are sharper than stone tools.
True.
What is the term for the examination of the surface and working edge of an artifact for signs of use, often by means of a high-powered microscope?
Microwear analysis.
Who, through ethnoachaeology, found that a modern community of Nunamiut Eskimos left bone assemblages similar to those found on Paleolithic sites?
Binford.
An _____ consists of the animal bones recovered from an archaeological site. They differ from paleontological assemblages because humans may have had a hand in their formation.
Archaeofauna.
____ _____ identifies the kind f animal remains (bones, shells, antlers) found at a site.
Faunal analysis.
_____ is the raw number of identified bones (specimens); largely outmoded way of comparing archaeological bone frequencies.
Number of Identified Specimens (NISP).
_____ is the smallest number of individuals necessary to account for all identified bones.
Minimum Number of Individuals (MNI).
____ is characteristic of a time series in which the data experiences regular and predictable changes which recur every calendar year.
Seasonality.
____ _____ is a term that refers to the girdles (pectoral and pelvic) and limbs (fore and hind) of the human skeleton.
Appendicular skeleton.
____ ____ forms the central axis of the body. It consists of the skull, the vertebral column, the ribs and the sternum.
Axial skeleton.
What site was located in Peru and developed around 900 BC late in the Initial Period by the Chavin people?
Chavin de Huantar.
A _____ recovers and identifies plant remains from ancient contexts, focusing on plant-people interactions.
Paleoethnobotanist.
What are some examples of microfaunal remains?
Pollen and phytoliths.
The ____ ____ refers to the tendency for humans to only transport useful parts of animals back to their home bases (mainly legs of large animals).
Schlepp effect.
What are coprolites?
Fossilized animal dung.
____ is the study of ancient plant pollen and spores.
Palynology.
What is the archaeological site in Iraq that shows evidence of medical knowledge?
Shanidar.
What animal is a boon for archaeologists in that they have a habit of collecting things?
Woodrat.