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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe the leveles of structural organization
cells-tissues-organs-orgn systems
describe the leveles of structural organization
cells-tissues-organs-orgn systems-organs
what are tissues?
groups of cells with a common structre and function
what are histologists?
people that study tissues
what are the key characteristics of the epithelial tissue
cells the contact the environment,

most importnatly, these are sheets of tightly packed cells that cover the outside of the bosy and lines the organ and cavities of the body. they function as a barrier protecting against mechanical injury, invading microorganisms and fluid loss,
what is the basement membrane and where is it located?
it is a dense mat of extracellular matrix
true or false, the free surface of epithelial cells is exposed to the air or fluidand the cels at the base or the barrier are attached to a basement membrane?
what are the fuctions of the epithelial tissue?
absorb nutrients, secrete solutions, move particles on surface using cilia
what is so important about epithelial tissue?
it allows aniamls to interface with their environment
what is connective tissue?
functions t bind and support other tissues
what is a matrix (nonliving)
this is a make up of fibers embedded in homogeneous ground substance that maybe liquid , jellylike or solid
t or f? Connective tissue has a sparse population of cells scattered throughout an exracellular matrix/?
what is the most abundant type of connective tissue? and what is it composed of?
loose CT composed of collagenos fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers, fibroblasts, macrophages
what are collagenous fibers?
nonelastic, strenght is length wise
what are elastic fibers?
holds shape when released, connects flesh to bone
what are reticular fibers?
join connetiv tissue to adjacent tissue-woven fabric
what are fibroblasts?
strong- also secrete proteins for ex-cell fibers
what are macrophages?
roam fibers, looking for bacteria
what is adipose tissue?
pads and insulates the body, it swells and shrinks with use/storage
what is fibrous Connective tissue?
dense due to large numbers of collagenous ibers
what is fibrous Connective tissue? what is it composed of?
dense due to large numbers of collagenous fibers that is composed of paralell bundles, tehdons-connects muscles to bone ad ligaments that connects bone to bone
what is cartilage? what is it embedded in?
has many collagenous fibers embedded in a rubbery ground substance called chondrin
what is bone? what are these cells called?
a mineralized connective tissue, the cells are called osteocytes
what do osteocytes do?
deposit a matrix of collagen
what is blood?
a matric of plasma
what is muscle tissue composed of?
long, excitable cells capable of considerable contraction
what are the three ypes of muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac, and visceral
what is skeletal muscle tissue?
striated, voluntary muscle that moves with the skeleton
what is cardiac muscle tissue?
contractile wall of heart-striaed like skeletal muscle, bt cells are branched-end of cells are joined by intercalated discs (relay signals from cell to cell during a heart beat)
what is visceral muscle tissue?
lacks striations, contract slowely, involuntary-organs like lungs , digestive systems ect ect
what does nervous tissue do? what are the cells called?
senses stimuli and transports signls from one part of the bosy to another

cells are called neurons, which are one functional unit of the nervous systems
what are organs and organ systems
different tissues organized into specialized centers or function
what are organs and organ systems? how are they suspened?
different tissues organized into specialized centers or function

they are suspened by CT called mesentenies
what is the organ system composed of?
several organs
what does the size, shape and the external environment
affects how the organism interacts with its external environment.
what is intersitial fluid?
the fuild surrounding he cells
how is the interstitial fluid maintained?
regualtation using pH, sugar levels, ect
what is homostasis?
they maintain constant conditions in the body
what are the components of the homeostatic systems?
receptors, controls centers, effectors, set points, negative feedback, positive feedback
what is a receptor?
heart, blood, brain, stain
what is a control center?
what does an effector do?
causes something to happen
what does an effector do?
causes something to happen
what are set points?
temp. pH, ect ect
what are negative feedback?
changes something
what is positive feedback?
dangorous, nothing is done , e.g. child birth