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44 Cards in this Set

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Irony
The use of words to express something other than and especially the opposite of the literal meaning (as when expressions of praise are used where blame is meant)
Stream of Consciousness
Narrative technique in non dramatic fiction intended to render the flow of myriad impressions—visual, auditory, physical, associative, and subliminal-- that together with rational thought impinge on the conscious individual.
Probably the most famous example of the Stream of Consciousness novel:
James Joyce’s Ulysses (1922
Another master of stream of consciousness
Virginia Woolf
Verbal irony
arises from a sophisticated or resigned awareness of contrast between what is and what ought to be and expresses a controlled pathos without sentimentality. It is a form of indirection that avoids overt praise or censure.
reader-response criticism
Critical method that examines the reader and the act of reading rather than the text being read.
An example of a novel that has been the subject of a great deal of textual criticism:
William Faulkner’s novel Absalom, Absalom! It is notorious for the many printing errors caused by the author’s reliance on complex typography to represent narrative levels.
What might reader-response critics examine?
the INFERENCES the reader must supply, the set of assumptions the reader must make, the gaps the reader must fill, the set of schemata the reader must actualize in order to make sense of the text, and the ideologies that determine all of the above.
textual criticism
The study of a literary work for the purpose of establishing the original form or a single definitive form of its text.
this critical approach evolved out of phenomenological (experiential) and interpretive analyses and is closely related to reception theory; it analyzes the reader’s role in the production of meaning when engaged with a written text.
reader-response criticism
How are various versions of a work of literature viewed under textual criticism?
Variations are not regarded as error; variation describes only difference between two readings
textual criticism- secondary definition:
used to denote a critical study of literature emphasizing a close reading and analysis of the text.
Surrealism
The principles, ideals, or practice of producing fantastic or incongruous imagery in art of literature by means of unnatural juxtapositions and combinations.
When did the Surrealist movement occur?
This movement in visual art and literature based on these principles flourished between Wars I and II.
What was the Surrealist movement a reaction against?
The movement represented a reaction against what its members saw as the destruction wrought by the “rationalism” that had guided European culture and politic sin the past and that had culminated in the horrors of Word War I
Realism
The theory or practice in art and literature of fidelity to natural or to real life and to accurate representations without idealization of the most typical views, details, and surroundings of the subject. Realism rejects imaginative idealization in favor of close observation of outward appearances.
What stimulated the Realist movement?
Realism was stimulated by several intellectual developments in the first half of the 19th century

1) the anti-Romantic movement in Germany
2)Auguste Comte’s positivist philosophy, in which the importance of the scientific stuff of society was emphasized
3) the rise of professional journalism, with its ideal of accurate and dispassionate recording of events
4)the development of photography, with its capability of mechanically reproducing visual appearances with extreme accuracy.
Principal masterpiece of realism:
-Gustave Flaubert’s Madame Bovary published in 1857
A description of Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary.

not necessary to memorize, just putting it here in case you would like to know this
“an unrelenting objective portrait of the bourgeois mentality” (428).
Realist tenets
an emphasis on detachment, objectivity, and accurate observation;
Impressionism
The depiction (as in literature) of a scene, emotion, or character by details intended to achieve a vividness or effectiveness more by evoking subjective and sensory impressions than by recreating or representing an objective reality.
Some writers who fall under impressionism:
Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Wolf, and James Joyc
Symbolist
Literary and artistic movement that originated with a group of French poets in the late 19th century, spread to painting and theatre, and influenced Russian, European, and American literature of the 20th century to varying degrees. Symbolist artists sought to express individual emotional experience through the subtle and suggestive use of highly metaphorical language
How did symbolism originate?
Symbolism originated in the revolt of certain French poets against the rigid conventions governing both technique and theme in traditional French poetry,
This style of writing emphasizes emotion or character by details intended to achieve a vividness or effectiveness by evoking subjective and sensory impressions.
Impressionism
Impressionism
The depiction (as in literature) of a scene, emotion, or character by details intended to achieve a vividness or effectiveness more by evoking subjective and sensory impressions than by recreating or representing an objective reality.
Some writers who fall under impressionism:
Dorothy Richardson, Virginia Wolf, and James Joyce
Symbolist
Literary and artistic movement that originated with a group of French poets in the late 19th century, spread to painting and theatre, and influenced Russian, European, and American literature of the 20th century to varying degrees. Symbolist artists sought to express individual emotional experience through the subtle and suggestive use of highly metaphorical language
How did symbolism originate?
Symbolism originated in the revolt of certain French poets against the rigid conventions governing both technique and theme in traditional French poetry,
This style of writing emphasizes emotion or character by details intended to achieve a vividness or effectiveness by evoking subjective and sensory impressions.
Impressionism
Existentialism
A family of philosophies devoted to an interpretation of human existence in the world that stresses its concreteness and its problematic character
The roots of existentialism
characteristic features occurred earlier, especially in the 19th century thinkers Freidrich Nietzsche and Soren Kierkegaard.
Existential beliefs:
According to existentialists, human beings are not solely or even primarily knowers; they also care, desire, manipulate, and above all, choose and act. Second, the self, or ego, required by some if not all traditional epistemological doctrines, is not a fundamental entity but rather emerges from experience.
what are the views of existentialists on personal agency
It is an important tenet of existentialism that the individual is not a detached observer of the world, but “in the world.” A person “exists” in a special sense in which entities like stones and trees do not; a human being is “open” to the world and to objects in it.
Expressionism
An artistic theory or practice of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in which the subjective or subconscious thoughts and emotions of the artist, the struggle of abstract forces, or the inner realities of life are presented by a wide variety of non-naturalistic techniques that include abstraction, distortion, exaggeration, primitivism, fantasy, and symbolism
Is Expressionist drama laid out in the inner or outer world?
Emphasis in Expressionist drama is laid not on the outer world, which is merely sketched in and barely defined in place or time, but on the internal, on an individual’s mental state; hence the imitation of life is replaced by the ecstatic evocation of states of mind
What are the dominant themes of Expressionist Poetry?
The dominant theme of Expressionist verse was horror over urban life and apocalyptic visions of the collapse of civilization.
Nihilism
Any various philosophical positions that deny hat there are objective foundations for human value systems
How is nihilism related to aestheticism?
Fundamentally, nihilism represented as a philosophy of negation of all forms of aestheticism;
What serves as the basis for nihilism?
It based its belief on nothing but scientific truth. All evils, nihilists believed, derived from a single source—ignorance—which science alone would overcome.
Antihero
A protagonist of a drama or narrative who is notably lacking in heroic qualities.
Dramatic Irony
A plot device; a type of IRONY that is produced when the audience’s or reader’s knowledge of events or individuals surpasses that of the characters. The words and actions of the character therefore takes on a different meaning for the audience or reader than they have for the play’s characters
An example of a case of dramatic irony:
This may happen when, for example, a character reacts in an inappropriate or foolish way or when a character lacks self-awareness and thus acts under false assumptions.
How is dramatic irony used in the story of Oedipus?
Dramatic Irony abounds in works of tragedy. In the Oedipus cycle, for example, the audience knows that Oedipus’ acts are tragic mistakes long before he recognizes his own errors.