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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is cardiovascular disease?
class of disease that involves the heart, blood vessels, arteries, and veins. Usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis
What are the incidents of cardiovascular disease?
-leading cause of death in this country and globally
-heart attacks are leading cause of all CV disease deaths in general
-emphasis has been put on risk factors and prevention
What are the modifiable risk factors associated with CVD?
-smoking
-diet
-hypertension
-hypercholesterolemia
-obesity
-physical inactivity
-emotional stress
What are the nonmodifiable risk factors associated with CVD?
-gender
-family history of CV illness
-persomal history of CV illness
-ethnicity
-race
-age
What are the examples of cardiovascular diseases?
-CAD
-MI
-HTN
-CHF
-CVA
-PVD
How does blood circulate through the heart starting with the superior and inferior vena cava?
-superior and inferior vena cava
-R atrium -> tricuspid valve->
R ventricle-> pulmonic valve-> pulmonary artery-> lungs
->pulmonary veins-> L atrium->
mitral valve-> L ventricle
->aortic valve-> aorta->
systemic circulation
How does the electrical activity go through the heart?
-SA node
-Intra atrial tracts
-AV node
-bundle of his
-R&L bundle branches
-purkinje fibers
(def)
the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.
Cardiac output
(def)
the amount of blood that leaves the ventricle upon contraction.
Stroke volume
(def)
the amount of blood ejected during the ventricular contraction compared to the amount of blood available in the ventricle.
Ejection fraction
(def)
the strength of the cardiac contraction.
contractility
(def)
the amount of blood in the ventricles ath the end of diastole (filling).
Pre load
(def)
the force the ventricles must excert to open the valves and eject the blood.
After load
How does sodium affect cardiac functioning?
-increased sodium depresses cardiac function
-need to monitor levels in CHF because edema can exacerbate CHF
How does potassium affect cardiac function?
-hypokalemia cause decrease in heart rate, increase force of contraction
-hyperkalemia decreases heart rate and force of contraction
-cardiac arrhythmias
What is the role of calcium in cardiac function?
-increase in levels can cause over contraction of heart
-decrease in levels causes cardiac flaccidity
What is the role of moagnesium in cardiac function?
-increase in levels causes hypotension, vasodilation, bradycardia, heart block, and cardiac arrest
-low levels cause cardiac arrythmias
How is the cardiovascular system affected by the aging process?
-chest wall-> kyphosis
-heart -> myocardial hypertrophy, downward displacement, decreased CO, HR, SV in response to excersise or stress
-cellular aging changes and fibrosis of conduction system
-valvular rigidity
-blood vessels-> arterial stiffening and thickening, increased torturosity
How many chambers are in the heart?
4
What are the four valves of the heart?
-tricuspid valve
-pulmonic valve
-mitral valve
-aortica valve
What are the three layers of the heart?
-epicardium
-myocardium
-epicardium
What is an incompetent valve?
a valve that is hard to open or wont close all the way
What does the QRS wave represent?
depolarization of the ventricles
What does the P waves represent?
depolarization of the atria
What does the T wave represent?
repolarization of ventricles
What does the QRS interval represent?
time required for impulse to spread through ventricles
What does the PR interval represent?
time required for impulse to spread from SA node to ventricles
What does the QT interval represent?
time required for impulse to spread through ventricles
T or F
Lipids accumulate the heart valves begin to calcify as part of the aging process.
True
T or F
As part of the aging process process there is an increase in number of pacemaker cells.
False
T or F
In the aging process collagen increase and elastin decreases.
True
T or F
In the aging process the resting heart rate changes.
False
T or F
As part of the aging process decreased functioning of the B-adrenergic receptors occurs.
True
T or F
As the aging process progresses the coronary arteries become more flexible.
False
T or F
As a part of the aging process there is a decrease in number of pacemaker cells in the SA node.
True
What assessment data gives the best information about cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance?
Blood pressure
What assessment data gives the best information about overloading the heart?
Heart sounds
What assessment data gives you the best information of the adequacy of circulation in the periphery?
-peripheral pulses
-capillary refill
-skin temp
-color of skin
-lips and nailbeds
-edema in extremities
What assessment data gives you the best information about the electrical activity of the heart?
heart rhythm
What is the only purpose of the heart?
to pump blood around the body
How are MI categorized?
by the plane of the ventricle involved
What is atrial depolarization?
When the electrical impulse has gone from the SA node to the AV node causing the atria to contract
What is ventricular depolarization?
When the impulse travels down the bundle branches to the purkinje fibers causing the ventricles to contract
What is a relative refactory period?
It is the time in between depolarization and repolarization.
In an EKG what does onecardiac cycle include?
PQRST
When the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated how does in effect the heart?
-SA node fires more rapidly -> causing HR to increase
-conduction speed increases
-ventricles contract with increased force
-cardiac cells become more irratable
What things stimulate the cardiac cells in the SNS?
-drugs
-epinepherine
-nervousness
When the parasympathetic system is stimulated the cardiac cells respond in what 2 ways?
-SA node fires less frequently->heart rate decrease
-conduction speed decreases
Stimulation of what nerve can cause bradycardia?
Vagus