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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 3 types of Image receptors?
P- Periapical
B- Bitewing
O- Occlusal
How many Images are there in a FMX at the OUCOD including periapical and bitewings
20
How much normal bone should be visible in a PA film?
3-4 mm
What is everything visible in a PA film?
The length of the tooth, 2-4 mm of bone and open interproximal contacts
What is seen in a bitewing film?
the upper and lower arches and crestal alveolar bone
What does BID stand for?
Beam Indicating Device
What does PID Stand for?
Position Indicating Device
Vertical Angulation is described as...
Up and Down of the BID in reference to the occlusal plane
Needed to get the whole length of the tooth
Horizontal Angulation is described as...
Forward and backward around the head in reference to the midsagittal plane
Needed to open up the contacts of the teeth
What technique do you use for anterior films size 1
Paralleling technique
What are the three part of the XCP device?
Indicator Arm
Aiming Ring
Bite Block
Where should the dot be placed when the XCP is assembled?
The Dot goes in the slot towards the beam
Why is the Dot important?
The dot is a reference point for the orientation of the film
What should be parallel for ideal angulation to occur?
The BID and the XCP device
What does over angulation result in?
Foreshortening of structures
What does under angulation result in?
Elongation of structures
Where should the dot be placed specifically for PA films?
-Raised dot towards the area of interest & x-ray beam

- Dot should be placed in the slot of the film holder

-Dot should be on incisal or occlusal side of the film
Where should the dot be placed specifically for bitewing films at the OUCOD?
Towards the lower edge of the film
What is placed in the center of the aiming ring of the XCP device?
The tooth of interest
What are the five basic principles for the paralleling technique?
- Film must be placed parallel to the long axis of the tooth
- CR should be directed perpendicular to film & long axis of the tooth
- Film holder is used to keep film parallel to long axis of the tooth
- Object-film distance is increased to keep the film parallel
- Source-film distance is increased to compensate for image magnification & to ensure that parallel rays are aimed at the tooth and film
What happens when object-film distance is increased?
Results in image magnification and loss of definition
What should the film not touch?
Teeth in the floor of the mouth
What do CMX or FMX consist of?
Periapical and Bitewing films
What are the film sizes used for children?
0,1,2
What are the film sizes used for adults?
1- used for Ant. PA's
2 - used for post. PA's and bitewings
What are the radiographic techniques for the anterior region?
- Central-lateral
- Canine
What are the radiographic techniques for the posterior region?
-Pre-molar
-Molar
Are the regions the same for both Maxilary and Mandibular arches?
Yes
How many bitewings are there in a FMX?
4 - 1 Premolar and 1 molar on each side
What defines an open contact?
Tthere is no overlap and the interproximal outline is clearly seen.
How should the film be placed in a Max. Central-Lateral Incisor Region?
• Place Size 1 film vertically in bite block
• Align central / lateral contact with center of film
• Place film in mouth parallel to teeth (do not touch teeth for paralleling)
• Patient should bite on outer edge of the block away from film
Where will a CR pass in a Max. Central-Lateral Incisor Region?
Between the contact of the Central and lateral incisors
What characterizes an ideally processed Max. Central-Lateral Region?
– Contact between central-lateral incisor should be open and centered
– 2-4 mm of normal bone visible beyond the apices
– Incisal edge of the teeth should be visible on the film
– Contact between the two centrals should also be visible on right & left central-lateral films (visible midline)
What is acceptable overlap for the Max. canine region?
Distal contact of the canine that is no larger than half the thickness of the canine
How should the film be placed in a Max. Canine region?
• Place Size 1 film vertically in the bite block
• Align midline of canine with center of film
• Place film in mouth, away from lingual surfaces (parallel)
• Patient should bite on outer edge of block, away from film
Where will a CR pass in a Max. Canine Region?
• Direct CR to pass through the mesial contact of the canine
What are the characteristics of an ideally processed Max. Canine Region?
– Canine should be centered on film
– Mesial contact of canine should be open
– 2-4 mm of normal bone visible beyond the apices
– Incisal edge of the teeth should be visible on the film
How should the film be placed for a Max. Premolar region?
• Place size 2 film horizontally, towards midline of palate, parallel to long axis of teeth
• Anterior border of film should cover the distal contact of canine and 1st & 2nd premolars (2nd may be centered on the film)
Where will a CR pass in a Max. Premolar Region?
• CR is directed to pass through contact between the 1st & 2nd premolar or 2nd premolar & 1st molar
What are the characteristics of an ideally processed Max. Premolar Region?
– Contact between premolars & distal contact of canine should be visible & open
– 2-4 mm of normal bone visible beyond the apices
– Occlusal plane of teeth seen on film
– Ideally, buccal & lingual cusps should be superimposed
How should the film be placed for a Max. Molar region film?
• Place size 2 film horizontally, in midline of palate, parallel to long axis of teeth, 2nd molar centered on the film
• Posterior border of film should cover maxillary tuberosity & distal crestal bone of last molar in the mouth
How is the beam directed in a Max. Molar region film?
• CR is directed to pass through the contact between the 1st & 2nd molar
What are the characteristics of an ideally processed Max. Molar region?
–2nd Molar should be centered on film
– Contact between molars should be open
– Max. tuberosity should be visible (3rd molar area)
– 2-4 mm of normal bone visible beyond the apices
– Occlusal plane of the teeth should be visible on film
– Buccal & lingual cusps should be superimposed
What is sometimes acceptable to be seen on Molar region film?
The First molar
Duh!
How should the film be placed in a Mandibular Central-Lateral region film?
How should the central ray be positioned?
What are characteristics of an ideal positioning?
Everything the same as Max. Central-Lateral Region except the film is placed between the teeth and the tongue
How should the film be placed in a Mandibular Canine Region Film?
How should the CR be aligned?
what characteristics define an ideal positioning of the beam?
The same as a Max. Canine Region Film
How should the film be placed in a Mandibular Premolar Region Film?
How should the CR be aligned?
what characteristics define an ideal positioning of the beam?
The same as Max. Premolar with the exception that for an ideal positioning the second premolar should be centered on the film.
How should the film be placed in a Mandibular Molar Region Film?
How should the CR be aligned?
what characteristics define an ideal positioning of the beam?
The same as Max. Molar with the exception that an ideal position constitutes the ascending ramus of the mandible is visible in the third molar region.
Who invented the Bitewing film?
Why?
Dr. Howard Raper in 1926 to detect interproximal caries
What are some characteristics of Bitewing film?
• Alveolar bone loss is best shown on BWs
• Bitewings can be vertical or horizontal
• Vertical BW show more alveolar bone than horizontal BWs
What should be centered on a bitewing film?
The occlusion
What does occlusal radiographs record?
Cross section of arches, Incisal & Occlusal surfaces of teeth
What are the uses of occlusal radiography?
Impacted teeth, Fractures, foreign bodies, Jaw lesions (expansion & erosion of bone), salivary stones etc.
How should the CR be positioned for a Maxillary occlusal radiograph?
Direct the central ray at vertical angulation of 60 - 65 degrees
How should the CR be positioned for a Mandibular occlusal radiograph?
Direct the central ray at the midline through the floor of the mouth approximately 3 cm below the chin, at right angle to the center
of the film
What are two sets of fleshy protrusions that can be seen in some radiographs?
Palatal and Mandibular Tori
What does edentulous ridges require?
25% less exposure time
14 film survey with size two film
panoramic radiograph is the simplest, quickest and least uncomfortable alternative
What are some ways to reduce pain and hypersensitivity?
Tissue protectors
Topical anesthetics (gels or sprays) Technique modifications
Film bending
Tranquilizers
What are some characteristics and advantages of tissue holders?
•Developed by a dental hygienist •Patients bite harder on film holder
•Improves patient comfort by protecting soft tissues from film abrasion
•Reduces no. of retakes
What are some ways of managing a patients gagging using psychic stimuli?
• Pleasant first contact & discussion
of problem in kindly manner
• Anterior films taken first
• Divert patient attention
• Premedication
What are some ways of managing a patients gag reflex through tactile stimuli?
• Minimal film motion in mouth
• Minimal contact with mucosa
• Use film holders, edge cushions
• Use desensitizers (rinses, ice water or salt on tip of tongue)
• Procedure to be done quickly
• Get a helper
• Combine intraoral views with extraoral films if needed
If a patient has a shallow palate what should you do in terms of changing your technique?
Change the vertical angles to over angulate in order to cover the apices.