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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When was the shift in studying attraction between strangers to attraction in relationships?
1980's - before then 80% research done on strangers.
What psychological areas do marital and dating research?
Now most marital research done by clinical psychologists and dating research done by social psychologists.
What are two limits on the data of this course?
Focused on western cultures and lack of attention on same-sex relationships.
What is an intimate
Partners do different things together
If apart, partners try to restore proximity
Partners like to please one another
Partners coordinate their behaviors
Being with the partner reduces anxiety
Partners reveal and share themselves
A reasonably long relationship is possible
Why do relationships matter?
They are common
They are important and desirable to people and to society - good for economy, society becomes more stable, raise children better...
They are a source of extremely positive and extremely negative experiences
They are costly when they function poorly
– They are the primary reason people seek help
What is the average age people marry and are men usually older than women?
25 to 30, yes, men by 2 years.
How do common law unions compare to marriages? What does it mean if you live together before marriage.
Common-law unions are much less stable then marriages. Living together before marriage is a risk factor for divorce.
What is the divorce rate in the US compared to Canada? How do 2nd and 3rd marriages compare to 1st marriages.
Us 50% and Canada 40%. 2nd and 3rd are more likely to end in divorce.
Married men (high social contact) had lower mortality rates, Why? Why was this not true for women?
Unmarried men were less likely to be in contact with their families (females do the contacting) and therefore had poorer social contact leading to poorer quality of life and increase in mortality rate. Women do the contacting and therefore don't supper low social contact.
What are some reasons people think we cant study relationships?
Not accessible to study.
Destroys the magic when we know the inner workings of things.
Relationships are common sense, we don't need to study them.
Problems with case studies (our
personal experiences included)?
Representativeness - select sample, not representative of population.
Selective memory
– Availability; vividness
Causality - can't infer causality.
Theory driven processing - biases in thinking therefore perceive things that way.
– Can select a case to fit any theory
– Any case can be interpreted to fit any theory
What is the difference between significance and effect size?
Significance test = reliability of finding; likelihood of obtaining the same result with replication in new sample
Effect size = magnitude of effect, strength of association between variables, strength of treatment effect.
• Large: rare in relationships field
• Medium: most common
• Small: generally not of interest
Research methods are the most and the least important thing to consider - explain?
-Important because they connect theories and questions with the phenomena of interest.
–Unimportant in the sense that we want findings to transcend how we arrived at them (the method). Don't want method to be an issue.
Why do people form close emotional relationships?
Because we have an innate drive to form close relationships. A survival mechanism in nature.
What affects the quality and duration of romantic relationships?
Quality of attachment relationships we experience becomes internalized and affects how we see ourselves and others-an individual difference.
What is Attachment?
An intimate emotional bond to a particular individual (attachment figure) who is seen as providing protection, comfort, and support.
These bonds persist into adulthood: “A child’s first…relationship [is] the foundation stone of his [sic] personality”
Hypothesized Function of the
Attachment Bond?
To maintain proximity of young to caregivers for protection.
To provide a secure base from which to explore the environment.
What is the Origins of Attachment Theory? Who started it and why?
John Bowlby and his interest in separation of children from parents. First protest, then despair, then detachment (indifferent).
What are the Four Components of the Attachment System?
Safe Haven - behaviour shown under threat, ill, distress... Go to this person preferentially.
Secure Base - exploration. This figure gives confidence to explore.
Proximity seeking/maintenance - behavior designed to increase closeness.
Separation Anxiety - threat of separation causes anxiety.
What are the defining features of an attachment relationship? How many, time to develop, contexts and time, Loss?
Attachment Figures - Attachment to one or a few preferred figures; not substitutable.
Loss of attachment causes grief.
Attachment bonds take time to develop.
Endures across time and contexts.
Unrelated to quality (security) of attachment-can still have a bond with someone who is abuse.
How will it effect you if the caregiver is attentive and
accessible or not?
Yes = feel secure, loved, confident – able to explore, play.
No = feel anxious – unable to explore, hyper-vigilant, searching, clinging.
What did Everett Waters say is the function of Safe Haven?
Behaviour shown under
threat to maintain proximity
to attachment figures.
Protection from predators
or making children more
Differences between childhood
and adult attachment?
Childhood: Complementary-you have attachment bond to parent, they don't have one in same way to you.
Adulthood: Reciprocal-rely on each other, can share more.

Primacy of attachment system-as child when feel distress, automatically seek parent, adults can do other things.
Directness of attachment behaviours-as child will cry and be overt, as adult will call parent and be more discrete.
Control over formation of attachment relationships as adults-children don't choose who they can be attached too.
What is the most useful and not useful indicator of an attachment bond?
Useful is separation anxiety, but ideally all four would be best. Not useful is proximity seeking because they appear in other types of attachments.
What are 4 things about attachment figures? Change? Multiple attachments? Hierarchies? Quality and context?
-Primary attachment figure can change from Childhood vs. adulthood.
-Multiple attachments are normal.
-We have Attachment hierarchies. Preferences for some over others.
-Choice of attachment figures we prefer can change due to quality (Dad is secure, mom anxious) and context (dad best when scared, mom when happy).
Hazan and Zeifman did a study where they asked P's which ONE person they would go to...What were their findings about the transition of attachment bonds throughout life? What about attachment bond formation beyond childhood.
Their study let only one person be chosen so it made it appear as if our attachment transitioned from parents to peers from infancy to late adolescents. After childhood form attachments to only sexual partners.
Attachment formation within close relationships follows the same sequence, what is this squence?
Initial attraction- proximity.

Established relationship- proximity, safe haven, separation protest.

Long-term relationships proximity, safe haven, secure base,-more tolerable of separation so no separation protest because more secure that the person will be there for you.
What did Trinke and Bartholomew find about attachment ranking of attachments when got to rate more then one person? How many attachment figures do we have on average?
If single rated mother first, if in a relationship rated partner first then mother.
On average 5.8.
What are the strengths of attachments across age for partner, mother, children, friends, and siblings.
Partner is always highest, children start around 26 and increase, mother and friends decreases, and siblings relatively the same.
Conclusions about attachment
networks that contrast from Hazan and Zeifman? Limitations?
-Multiple attachment figures.
-Changes in attachment hierarchy over time.
-Role of parents, siblings friends...
-Other attachment figures? Companion animals, God, transitional objects
2 studies, what were their findings?
1 girls made anxious, then reunited with boyfriends?
2 Watched couples in airports separating, what is relationship with seperation protest and relationship length?
More anxious they were, the more they sought comfort from boyfriends.
Overt displays of attachment behavior were less common in couples who have been together longer.
What sets attachment figures apart from other strangers?
They are proffered.
What is the difference between attachment quantity and quality? What happens to quantity if quality is bad?
Quantity is how much you are attached to someone (secure base, safe haven...) and quality is insecure or secure attachment style. Just because quality is bad doesn't mean there is no attachment! Nothing!
What is a chronically accessible attachment schema?
Activated via priming, a specific attachment view that comes out, unique to each person.
What did study find when made people anxious and then did a lexical decision task where some of the words were names of attachment figures?
When people feel threatened, faster at lexical decision of attachment figure. Threats automatically activate mental representations of attachment figures.
Study on rat pups found what about different specific features of mother presented to pups.
When pups were stoked like mom does their sleeping returned to normal, when cage warmed their activity became normal. Each feature like mom regulated something in pups physiological system.
What are Bowlby's 3 types of attachments.
caregiver system
attachment system
sexual system
How is the quality of child attachment assessed? What two things must you consider when assessing the category of attachment quality? How would secure, ambivalent, and avoidant babies react?
Strange situation developed by Mary Ainsworth.

-How distressed/anxious did the baby appear when separated?
-How easily was the baby
soothed/comforted with the return of the attachment figure?

Secure- distressed, then soothed.
Ambivalent- distressed, then distressed.
Avoidant- not distressed, then not distressed.
How is the attachment bond activated?
By stress.
What are the patterns of attachment for children?
Secure- baby may or may not show distress when attachment figure leaves, but shows signs of happiness when he/she returns.
Resistant or Ambivalent- shows great distress when attachment figure leaves, when returns still distressed and wants to be picked up but is still distressed.
Avoidant- shows no distress when attachment figure leaves, is indifferent when he/she returns.
What kind of parenting is associated with the types of attachment?
-Secure - Sensitive parenting; effective use of
attachment figure.
-Ambivalent - Inconsistent parenting; turns to attachment figure, but difficult to soothe (child appears angry).
-Avoidant - Insensitive, rejecting parenting;
avoids attachment figure under stress (deactivating strategies).
-Fourth Pattern – Disorganized/Mixed
ambivalent-avoidant Disturbed parenting, fearful
attachment figure; disorganized attachment behaviour.
Is insecurity highly problematic?
No, they are function within the child's environment.
Is security/insecurity of the child only a function of caregiving quality?
No, the child's temperament, and the match between the child's temperament and parents caregiving style play a role in the security/insecurity formation of the child's attachment bond.
Will the attachment category be consistent across relationships?
We adapt strategies to different social contracts with people, can be diff with mom to dad.
Will the attachment category be consistent over time?
Not necessarily, can change. It varies with the stability of caregiving environment.
Is there a formative period in infancy?
Yes, early attachment bonds form the foundation but continue to form throughout life.
Are earlier attachment experiences the most important?
Yes, the young you are the easier it is to change attachment styles. They are the foundation.
Attachment security as a quality of the relationship versus a quality of the person, explain?
We assess attachments as a quality of the relationship, we can only see behaviors. In fact attachments can also be a function of our personality, we internalize relationships as part of our personality.
In childhood measure security as part of relationship, as adults measure it as part of the individual person.
What is a working model? What are the two judgments?
Childhood attachment relationships internalized as working models. We make two judgments about relationships. -Judge the self as someone who can be responded to in helpful way i.e. loved.
-Judge the attachment figure whether she is the sort of person who can offer support and love.
What is the two-dimensional model of attachment? How do the two dimensions map onto the four prototype model?
Explains the degree to which we make the judgments, and I worthy of love on one axis and are others willing to love me on another axis.
-Secure- Self is worthy (low anxiety), others are willing to love (low avoidance).
-Ambivilant- Self is not worthy (high anxiety), others are willing to love (low avoidance).
-Avoidant- Self is worthy (low anxiety), others not willing to love (high avoidance).
-Mixed- Self not worthy (high anxiety), others not worthy to love (high avoidance).
How continuous are attachment models (working models)?
They have some continuity and guide our behaviors. Similar patterns are found in childhood and adulthood but they can change from process of ASSIMILATION AND ACCOMODODATION.
How must working models be assessed?
Can't observe them directly. Instead look at emotional (anxiety) and behavior (avoidance).
What is the difference between the four prototypes of attachment and the four components of an attachment bond?
Four prototypes explain individual differences, the four components of attachment bond explain universal similarities.
What is the value of flexibility in the secure attachment prototype?
More flexible means can adapt and cope to change to get what they need, where insecure are stuck in their way and don't get needs met.
Problematic and unresolved
issues in adult attachment?
Attachment models
– Two dimensions or more?
– Conscious or non-conscious?
– Multiple models of attachment?
– Hierarchies of attachment models?
How to measure adult attachment
– Self-report (conscious) vs. interview (Non-conscious).
Attachment as an individual vs. relationship variable.
– Which comes first?
How widely to extend the concept, to work, beyond close attachments?
What are four domains in which we can expand the self?
Physical, social, cognitive, existential.
What are two key processes of self-expansion?
Processes 1 Self-expansion over
the course of relationships.
Processes 2 Including other in the self.
What are the three characteristics of self-expanding activities?
They must be novel, exciting, and arousing.
How does self-expansion change over time in a close relationship?
-Initial stage = rapid expansion, novel person, talk all night...
-Over time = decline in self-expansion opportunities, you know them, they aren't novel anymore.
What is the value of shared self-expanding activities? Correlational, experimental, and field study?
Evidence of positive impact of self-expansion activities done together.
Correlation: strong evidence, long relationships and married couples novel activities most affective (confounding factors?).
Experimental: modest findings, engaging in novel activity increases satisfaction with partner (long-term effect?).
Field study: increase in satisfaction in exciting condition over 10 weeks.
How do we expand by including other in the self?
–Resources, perspectives, characteristics...
What are the findings using the IOS scale?
The closer the relationship, the more overlap in circles.
What are the positive implications of including another in our self-concept? What about relationship satisfaction?
Higher self-esteem.
More diverse self-concept, more complex (I am...).
The closer the IOS rating, the more satisfied the couple. Unless don't want to be so close.
What implications does self-expansion model have for social cognition?
Changes in processing information.
- we begin to think about the other
as if he/she is part of our self
Actor-observer attributional
- attribute partners actions to the situation, part of self, and others to their personality.
The close other’s traits become confused with our own.
- I go to cap, no um thats my partner.
What are problems with being too close in a relationship?
-Limiting in own expansion possibilities outside the relationship.
-If break up, will lose big!
-Lose sense of personal control.
-Lose sense of personal identity.
How does breaking up and self-expansion relate in terms of the level of expansion in the relationship.
- If had high expansion in the relationship, will contract when break up.
- If had low expansion in the relationship, will expand after break up.
How can you maximize self-expansion in the long-term?
Do self-expanding things together as a couple.
Self-expand outside the relationship.
Don't expect all self-expansion needs to be met by your partner.
What would you avoid to do in order not to decrease self-expansion in a relationship?
-Avoid becoming stagnant.
-Avoid repetition.
-Avoid to much closeness.
Strengths of the Self-
Expansion Model?
Novelty; a positive view.

Explains why perceived similarity attraction
link doesn’t hold when
you are confident the other person likes you:
– Dissimilarity desirable because gives potential for expansion - Only IF high probability of being attainable.

Explains the decline in relationship satisfaction with time, less possibility of expanding.