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237 Cards in this Set

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Great powers trying for Peace and Pacifism (4)
- Prohibition on the launching of projectiles and explosives from balloons.
-Prohibition on the use of asphxiating or deleterious gases.
-prohbition on expanding bullets (dum dums)
-established international court on arbitration = work out differences.
The Hague Peace Conference, 1899
-In the Netherlands
-Tsar Nicholas II of Russia initiates this = limits the production of arms.
= Doesnt get achieved, no agreement, Germany remains a major threat

==> They achieve a # of symbolic agreements (peace and pacifism notecard).
-very unusual because its attended by Mexico, Persia, Siam = inclusion of non-western world.
The Great Illusion by Norman Angel (1909)
= Push for internationalism
-world is so linked that war is unprofitable/unthinkable = interdependent.
-translated into 25 languages, sold over 2 million copies
- economic and social interdependence
Ludovic Lazarus Zamenhof
- Inventor of Esperanto 1887
- Cultural Internationalism
- wanted to create a new language so everyone can communicate and get along = intended to make peace.
The Paris Universal Exposition 1900
-Cultural internationalism
-Fairs, expositions, etc.
= look at the achievements of past century and twoard the future.
-big showing of people
- this is run by europeans and americans - there are human zoos, not that international, very new concept
-opposite of liberal democratic capitalism
-Communism is the next stage.
-When Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels get a hold of it, it becomes threatening.
-very international
-Russian Revolution = it becomes a state ideology.
Definition = Any of various theories or systems of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy.
The stage in Marxist-Leninist theory intermediate between capitalism and communism, in which collective ownership of the economy under the dictatorship of the proletariat has not yet been successfully achieved.
-Was very threatening
-No single leader – very disparate
-Wanted to abolish state, government and any coercive social institution (including property).
-Pushed voluntary cooperation for social welfare = believed it was a better system.
-Used violence to advocate it.
-First Terrorist movement
-There were many assassinations and bombings (especially in Europe).
-President William McKinley (1843-1901) was assassinated by Leon Czolgosz (1873-1901)
-Nations are natural
-Nationalism is fostered by:
State education
Mass political Parties
National Languages
Bureaucratic State
-Austro Hungarian Empire, Russian Empire, Africa and Asia = all kinds of nationalities
=> Huge threat to empires.
Possibilities and Challenges
Imperialism=The policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations
Is the dominant international system
-mid-late 19th century - huge expansion
-renewal of imperialism.
3 Models of Imperialism (British)
1) Colonies of White Settlement
-trade, population outlet, agricultura, man power (e.g. Austrailia and South Africa)
-> efforts made to stay white, keep out non-british people
-self rule
-more autonomy and freedom
-britian controls foreign policy (naval help)
3 Models of Imperialism (British)
2) India
-trade, manpower, investment, resources, most important colony
= defines British
-tea, rice, #s of troops, cotton, sell finished goods back to them.
3 Models of Imperialism (British)
3) The Dependent Empire
-strategic importance, natural resources, prestige
-most colonies in africa and asia
-tutorage, teaching people
-used to extract natural resources - not a lot of trade
-> place to invest capital - infrastructure, railroads, ports, etc.
French Imperialism (Algeria)
-no serious effort to settle colonies.
-religious = Catholicism (missionaries/civilizing mission).
-some economic benefits (IndoChina, dont need colonies to provide them food).
-racial/civilizing mission.
Sources of Imperialism (4) = no single clause

Number 1 = Religion
-Charles Darwin - The Origin of Species - major shake/evolution/natural selection = undermines christianity/religion.
-missionaries went to reinvigorate the faith by spreading it abroad and converting people.
-some genuine efforst - hospitals/schools
-some react violently to missionaries (troops are sent in, grows and grows, and new colonies form).
Sources of Imperialism (4)
2) Racial Impulse
-Social Darwinism - Herbert Spencer - if evolution is a struggle then its survival of the fittest (social, the fittest should dominate).
-Scientific Racism = professionals, some races are superior, race is scientifically natural (Count Arthur de Gobineau ranked the races).
-Cecil Rhodes
- The White Man's burden by Rudyard Kipling = duty to uplift people, bioloigcally ordained, moral and ethic thing to do.
Sources of Imperialism (4)
3) Strategic impulse 1
British need a navy to protect/defend itself.
1) Sea Power =
-bases and coaling stations must be established
-military importance/protection
-economic importance
-chockepoints must be protected (Suez Canal)
-what if someone gains control of these chockepoints - british did everything in their power to control/defend these areas because its their lifeline.
Sources of Imperialism (4)
3) Strategic impulse 2
2) Land Power = geopolitics
-Sir Halford Mackinder = what matters the most is the heartland/pivot area.
-if you control that you're untouchable
-Eurasian landmass - Russia and central Europe
= alternative to sea power argument.
Sources of Imperialism (4)
4)Economic Impulse 1
John A. Hobson (1858-1940)
-Imperialism is entirely driven by finance capital (money to invest anywhere you want)
- so much money that they cant invest profitably in england anymore - driving england into the ground
Sources of Imperialism (4)
4)Economic Impulse 2
V.I. Lenin (1870-1924)
-abundance of money invested
-in the marxist ideology it is the last stage in capitalism
=fighting for control
-conflicting great powers.
Imperial China
-never under direct control
-carved up by Great powers into spheres of influence.
-completely economic
-somewhat religious
-set up treaty ports along coast
-european run custom houses (sources of revenue for chinese govt)
-chinese laws dont apply
Boxer Rebellion
-anyone can come in and trade - america wants in.
Response -> anti-imperialists
-society of righteous and harmoneous fists aka Boxers
-agitated by invasion
-europeans put together a huge number of troops, go into Pekind and the boxers are put down.
-Chinese govt is fined
1911- Revolution in CHina - becomes a republic led by Dr. Len, forms the nationalist party.
-very important to the british empire
-british use indirect rule - Indian princes are left in charge - they work thru the leaders.
-India is too big to conquer
-a system is set up for economic exploitation.
their military is a major contribution to britain.
-By 1914 Africa is colonized (only 2 independent states left - Abysinia/Liberia)
-The Scramble for africa because of...anglo-french rivalry
-French is embarassed because of the defeat against Germany/Prussia - send troops to conquer weaker nations.
-German - Otto Von Bismark is the leader, knows that Germany needs to protect itself from powers - encourages french to go to africa.
-prestige, surplus capital, commerce, christianity, civilization
-technology and medicine helped them do it.
Great Powers Conflict
tensions among global powers
Anglo-Boer War
Great Power Conflict
-British Vs. Dutch
-Dutch oppose the British colonization.
-Cecil Rhodes = racist, prime minister of cape colony, diamond company ,wants money.
-Boers move north and 2 states are established, the transvaal and orange free state.
-gold is found in the transvaal and the British come in - tension.
-1899-war breaks out
-drags on for 3 years
-British set up concentration camps - costly$$
-1st drop for British - unpopular at home and lots of troops used.
Fashoda Crisis
Great power conflict
-Britain wants to create the cape to cairo railroad to connect the british empire (north to south)
-french want to build west to east
-fashoda = intersection.
-french want to get there first
-britain is fighting in suda - they carry down to fashoda.
-Paris and London are allies on the homefront!!!
-French are outgunned and are worried about the Germans so they want an alliance w/ britain.
-brought them to the verge of war.
Great Powers conflict
-French Sphere of Influence
-Kaiser Wilheilm II (Germany) gives speech telling Morocans they should be free - this annoys the french
-The moroccans support the French and the French control in Morocco remains.
-Germany does want in though.
Russian Ports
Great Power Conflict
-Russia doesnt have a year round ice-free port
-they're kinda stuck
-british dont want them to have access to ports.
-Russians become increasingly restless.
Cecil Rhodes
-anglo-saxons are the best race (cultural supremacy)
-scientific racism - not for others benefit
-economic benefits for self/individuality
-very secretive to get people to do what he wants
-church missionary zeal for anglo-saxon race.
-economic basis of imperialism
-go elsewhere to use capital
-opposite of hobson.
-if you have power use it.
-we have the instinctive racial tendencies to expand.
Kaiser Wilheilm II
-power lies on waters
-get out there and find new ports
-challenge British navally
-prestige of German Empire
Early 20th Century-rise of US and Japan Imperialism
-competitive with each other
-pacific interests
Americas Rise to Power (timing)
Early 19th century they're not involved in imperialism because they're not strong enough.
-by the end of the 19th century they rise in the world power rank.
America's Rise to Power
1) Manifest Destiny
-By John Gast (1872)
-continental expansion
-> Advertisement = figure (angelic) moving across nature, dark setting of uncivlized america, symbols/imagery of American-expansion.
-Texas annex (1845)
-1846-Mexico and US go to war -- acquire S.W. US
-Manifest destiny = rational, mid-1850s, bring the continent under control, ordained by god.
-2 Forms of Manifest destiny
2 Forms of Manifest Destiny
-religiously inspired
-serves as an example for the old world to follow
-US doesnt need to go out, its an example.
2 Forms of Manifest Destiny
2) Late 19th Century/Early 20th Century
-America as a regenerative force (interventionist)
-Sacred-Secular mission: spread democracy (secular) and Christianity (sacred) thru the world.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion
1890 = Census announced that the frontier was closed because there were more than 2 people per square mile.
-when the frontier closed people wondered what will happen now.
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion
"The Significance of the Western Frontier" (1893)
-Frontier is central to Americans
-the Frontier makes America
=Democracy, liberalism, etc.
-Frontier experience creats individualism of America.
It allowed immigrants to become Americans.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
-U.S. doesnt want to be left behind - When country cant expand, people worry, no more growth/resources/etc.
-Domestic Economcy -Depression 1893-1900 = shock @ depression, major railroad companies go bankrupt, panic on wallstreet, gold supply levels-people dont think they can trade gold for money
-mass bankrupcy
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
would stimulate the economy
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
-immigrants are strike breakers or leaders
-americans dont like immigrants - they are the causes and they bring in foreign issues
--> foreign policy is created
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
only the fittest wills urvive
-racism makes imperialism less likely.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
-cultural reason
-idea that feminism is beocming loud and because the depression puts men out of work they're not breadwinners anymore.
-leisure time if or women. and if men get this they're feminized.
-> Go out and fight wars to become manly.
America's Rise to Power
2) The Frontier and Overseas Expansion (US)
"The Influence of Sea Power on History (1890)"
-all major powers are sea powers.
-strong navy = power
-20th century - sea power
-US must build a navy so they're not left behind or vulnerable to attack from other powers.
-> Need bases, coaling stations, control of sea lanes.
-very influential (Roosevelt, Kaiser Wilheilm, Japanese)
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
Long term causes: US must build a navy to protect itself from an attack and to be a power.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
resulted in the United States gaining control over the former colonies of Spain in the Caribbean and Pacific.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
=Predominant power in the Western Hemisphere
-1823 Spain will lose their empire
-Cuba is still theirs
-Chile,Peru, Aregentina = revolution and independence.
->Fear that other powers will colonize Latin America
-President James Monroe - Latin America is America's interest.
-US doesnt want monarchical rule in Latin America
-symoblic power
-G.B. isnt interested in colonizing there they just want to trade.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
increasing interest in the colonies of Spain
-US has had a long term interest in annexing Cuba - epxanding slavery for the south, former slave/AA place - dont want an uprising of former slaves.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
1895, uprising against spain.
-Spanish are oppressive - Concentration camps, starvation, execution.
-> Good opportunity for the US to annex Cuba.
-Yellow Press/Jingoism = emergence of the popular press.
-Yellow press whips up pro-war sentiment (2 papers = NY World and NY Journal) fighting for readership control.
-cartoons, Spanish = apes
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
Feb, 1898
- Spanish minister for Cuba in D.C. writes letter calling president weak to Spanish minister in spane = de Lome Letter
-published in the US
-outraged @ foreginer.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-American Battleship in Havana Cuba explodes
-Yellow Press blames the Spanish
-> Cuases a war fever, remember the maine to hell with spain!
-270 soldiers killed.
-McKinley asks for a declaration of war 1898
-460 troops die in war.
-5,000 die of disease
->inefficient and incompetent
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-war spreads to Phillipines
-Roosevelt is the army leader sends fleet to Manila
-Spanish fleet there is destroyed
-Sent to Puerto Rico
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-Spain recognizes Cubas independence
-Cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to the US
-Sells Philippines to US for $20 million.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-Cuba will become independent
-troops are in cuba preparing them for indep.
-1902 - Consitution = Cuba is forced to accept the PLATT Amendment = can't make treaties w/o Americans, US has right to intervene whenever Cuban indep of US interests are threatened and create a permanent naval base (Guantalemo Bay)
--> Independent but lots of US control.
America's Rise to Power
3) The Spanish-American War, 1898
-US will give independence eventually.
-Emilio Aguinaldo = insurgency against US presenece (1899)
-200,000 troops, 4,000 die
-Fights them with same tactics the Spanish used (moral/ethic?)
-William Howard Taft = 1901= is made Civilian Governer of Philippines
-insurgencies wind down
-Taft rebuilds and grants increasing independence
-> US gets Subic Bay (naval base for Pacific Fleet).
America's Rise to Power
4) The Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
-Independent Rule by Queen Liliuokalani (monarch)
-Sugar cane and fruit planters dominate political/economic life
-no tariff on Hawaiian sugar to the US
-1890 - abolished, pay duties
-> Sends Hawaiian economy down.
America's Rise to Power
4) The Annexation of Hawaii (1898)
Sanford B. Dole
-Leads coup against Queen in 1893
-Gives up authority
-appeals to the US to annex them - no interest.
-1898, Reublicans in power and they annex Hawaii
-no duty/tarffs for them.
-US gets Pearl Harbor (naval base/mid-pacific)
=> Need a big Navy to protect the empire.
America's Rise to Power
5) Connecting the Oceans
-bordered by the Atlantic and Pacific
-no way of connecting and concentrating fleet.
Roosevelt, 1904
-cancels treaty with British to build canal.
buy rights from France to Panama canal (40% completed)
-workers are dying, Yellow fever cure
-Panama is apart of Colombia -> lease a 6 mile wide zone - $10 million with least every year $250,000. Not ratified.
-T.Roosevelt gets a coup/rebellion to start - marines sent in and Panama becomes independent and they're offered the same deal - completed in 1914.
America's Rise to Power
6) Roosevelts Collary, 1904
->US is a soverign power and it has power of the Western Hemisphere
-makes Monroe doctrine official, they actually have the power to back themselves.
Japan's Rise to Power
-becomes a major power
-prior to 1854 it was isolationist
-1853 Comodor Matthew Perry, US, demanded trading rights
-Japanese are surprised and horrified and rejected this.
-Perry says he'll return - 1854 he presents a treaty of frienship in 2 specific ports
-> inspires other european powers to do this too
-Japan is fuedal, run by a shogun, not industrialized.
Japan's Rise to Power
1) Meiji Restoration, 1868
-oligarchs, try to resist domination, revolution, fuedal leadership falls.
-Modernization and Westernization - in order to advance they emulate the West (naval, commerce, economy and education) - take best elements and recreate them.
->Growth and change.
Japan's Rise to Power
1) Meiji Restoration, 1868
Challenges to Growth
-shortage of raw materials
-shortage of agricultural/arable land
-excess population: land and food supply.
Japan's Rise to Power
2) Colonial Expansion
= because of challenges to Growth
1. Korea = Under Chinese Control.
-helps them move into Manchuria (tempting target for them)
-1894-95 = Sino-Japanese War = victory over China.
-Korea is independent and get Liaotung Peninsula (Port Arthur)
-this is a problem for Russia because they had controlled this area pre-japan.
->Russia pressures Japan and Russia occupies Korea.
-continues for 10 years...then
Japan's Rise to Power
1) Colonial Expansion
Because Russia occupied Korea
-Japanese are victorious
-Russia needs a port
-Russian navy is destroyed.
Japan's Rise to Power
1) Colonial Expansion
-Revolution breaks out in Russia = cant keep fighting
-Roosevelt intervenes
-Japan leases Liaotung and Port Arthur from China
-Japan gets a priviledged position in Manchuria
-Japan gets a protectorate over Korea (Japan annexes it in 1910)
-Secret Taft-Katsura Agreement = Japan has Korea and US has Philippines.
Racism in US because of Japanese expansion
Racial tensions in Hawaii, West Coast US because they're petrified of Japanese Expansion.
People want to keep them out - wave of racism.
The European Arms Race
-Britain is dominant power but its losing its advantage.
-Germany, Weltpolitik "A Place in the Sun" = wont be left behind, big navy, wants to rival or take over GB
-Germany establishes colonies in Africa and Asia (Pacific Islands)=huge threat
European Alliance System is set up
-1882-Triple Alliance (defensive) - Germany, A-H, Italy against France and Russia
-1894- Franco-Russian Alliance - response to Germany (2 front war)
-1904- Anglo-French Entente = policy of the Kaiser = huge threat, demonstration of common interest.
-1907 =Anglo-Russian Entente - GB is slowly getting involved.
The Great War
-more destructive and widespread
-global conflict
The Road to Armageddon
1) Prewar Alliances
Triple Entente
Triple Alliance
The Road to Armageddon
2) Issues
-Franco-German rivalry over Alsace-Lorraine
-Germany wins it in Prussia-German War, France isnt happy.
-Italy and Austria-Hungary over the Tyrol (Italy wont enter war because of this, war isnt defenseive).
-British and German naval rivalry
-Russia and Austria Hungary rivalry in the Balkans.
Rivalry in the Balkans
1) Pan-Slavism
-Russia vs. Austria Hungary
-Ottomans are forced out of Europe
-New Independent places form
-Serbia is independent 1888
-Bosnia is given to A-H empire
-Pan-Slavism = people in balkans share nationality (serbia pushes this)
-> wants to unite all pan-slavic countries together and create Yugoslavia.
-lots of Serbs in Bosnia, problem for them living in A-H land.
-A-H empire is multiethnic and if Serbia is successful in uniting Slavs people will want independence = must stop serbs.
==Independence for slavic people in A-H and Ottoman empire
Rivalry in the Balkans
Russians see themselves as slavs/protector of slavs/leader of pan-slavic movement.
-Russian elite/tsar see this as a way to stabilize Russia
Rivalry in the Balkans
3) Ottoman Empire
Ottoman empire is in control of Instanbul/Constantinople = religious center for Russia.
-Russia in Balkans -Instanbul
-Dardenelle Straight is occupied by Turkish (both sides) -> Constantinople gives access to West Coast of Straight.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
-heir to Austria-Hungarian throne
-wants to bring unity back to empire - reach out to all peoples so they're not as suseptible to Serbian nationalism.
-Pan-slavinists see this as a threat - assasinate him
-the black hand = slavist national group in bosnia
-Ferdinand visits Bosnia and is attacked by the black hand.
-> Austria hungary sees Serbia as souce of problem
-A-H makes sure Germany is their ally
-give an ultimatum to Serbia - 10 points of demand (anti-nationalist)Designed to be REJECTED
-Serbs turn to Russians, reject ultimatum and Russia will deal with it.
= there is a feeling this war can be contained and localized.
NOT true = alliances and mobilizing army make localization impossible.
Mobilization of early armies
July-August 1914 - thought to be a quick war
-Russian army is fully mobilized against A-H and Germany.
-Germany mobilizes against Russia
-France has to mobilize to support Russia (2 front war)
-Germany declares war on France.
Blame for the beginning of the war - Germany
Germany = has a feeling of strength that is declining
Also, AH is a weak ally for them (increase value) - want war with Russia because they're getting stronger and Germany wants to gain economic control over Europe.
Military Plans
1) Germany's Schlieffen Plan
=As soon as war breaks out, attack France through neutral Belgium.
-belief that Russia can't mobilize fast enough
-Get rid of France to avoid a 2 front war.
Problems with the Schlieffen Plan
1) Belgium = neutral = ask for permission/rejected.
-Germans do it anyway and they come too short of Paris.
2) Britain enters war because Belgium's neutrality was breached (august 4, 1914)
-treaty of 1839 = all great powers will defend the neutrality of belgium.
-also because they want to protect ports against germany
-small/professional army
-kaiser isnt too concerned.
3) french want Alsace-Lorain (fails)
=>Excitement for war esp among upper and middle class.
The 1st Battle of Marne
-Russians mobilize fast
-Germans send troops there and dont have enough troops for Schlieffen plan to work.
-French are stronger than expected.
-German's regroup @ Marne River
-France and Germany faces off - very static/stalemate
=> people realize this isnt going to be a short war.
Stalemate and Slaughter
1) Trenchwarefare
-build trenches to set up defenseive posts
-both sides are on the defensive
-lots of slaughtering when attacked.
-no significant advances
-trenches have - barb war, rough land, filthy, open land, mustard gas, lice, rats, etc.
-system of trenches - soldiers rotate
Stalemate and Slaughter
2) Technology
-machine guns give an advantage to the defense (cant be assaulted)
-artillery (tanks)
-airplanes for scouting, bombings (Fakker Planes (interupter gear = fire gun btw. propellers.)
Stalemate and Slaughter
3) Gallipoli
-Winston Churchill
-German weak spot is the Ottoman Empire - attack them and get troops.
-Dardenelles = Turkish Straights -> Russia
1) British send fleets to Turkish implacments along straights, they have guns and mines - disasterous!
2) British land troops on the tip=Gallipoli = disasterous - lasts 10 months - casualties/bad conditions.
1916 British leave after 10 months and are humiliated at the stalemate.
Major Battles and Casualties
-Ypres, 1915
-Somme, 1916
-Verdum, 1916
-Passchendaele, 1917
-> Casualties are HUGE
-French and British mobilize colonial forces.
-British use conscription in 1916.
Military Dictatorship in Berlin
Hindenburg + Ludendorff = in charge of military
-war of attrition = kill as many as possible, starve, etc.
-Fond of Submarine warfare
American Neutrality (1914) and Intervention
1916 Wilson Wins, kept US out of War.
American Intervention because:
1) Economic a) Lusitania
German U-boats
-British put a naval blockade on Germany
-US has a lucrative trade with germany and its haulted
-US makes diplomatic protests but it statys neutral
-US starts trading with Britian and France on a larger scale = stake in allied victory.
-Germany declares war zone in the ocean
-Lusitania = british passenger liner is blown up!
-1098 killed, including US citizens. - uproar in US
-Germany claimed it had munitions - uboat warfare suspended.
American Intervention because:
1) Economic b) Allies low on $
-French and British borrow moeny from US banks.
American Intervention because
2) Political and Ethical Consderations
a) Immigration
-german-americans in US - dont want to go to war
-irish-americans - british dominate ireland (easter uprising)
-jews - escaped Russian control, Tsar wanted them dead, anti-Russia
American intervention ethical considerations
=> Political problem for Wilson
-anglo file = bond with england
-romantic notion of French helping us getting independent.
The Zimmerman Telegram
February 1917
-Germans reinstill unrestricted submarine warfare
-zimmerman (german foreign minister)
-sends telegram to Mexico
-British decode message
-Make mexico an offer they cant refuse - invade US and get lost territory back.
-Japan is offered to join German side
==> Last straw, Wilson enters the war, April 6, 1917.
US entry into War
=make world safe for democracy
= an associate power - not a degenerate European power.
-Liberty bonds = govt sells to US people to fund war
-Wilson declares "14 pts"
Wilson's 14 points
-no secret diplomacy
-freedom of seas
-removal of ecnomic barriers
-reduction in armaments
-settling colonial claims
-alsace lorain to france
-autonomy and independence in europe
-a general association of nations = league of nations
Russian Withdrawal
-Russia is authoritarian, when they leave the US wants democracy
-downhill after start of war
-Russian army is bad/poorly prepared.
-Tsar Nicholas II, takes personal control of military = hes blamed for the misfortune and doesnt spend enough time at capital.
-Gregory Rasputin = runs things in capital, Alexandra's husband - murdered 1916.
-Terrible conditions on the home front.
By 1917 the situatino is out of control - abdicate - new parliamentary government led by Prince Ludoff.
-worker groups cmpeting for power.
Russia: 2 Revolutions
March and October 1917
-Alexander Kerensky - continue to fight war!
-V.I. Lenin - German help Lenin back into Russia from exile
-Bolsheviks (left party) gain power
-Kerensky asks them for help to put the right down, but they overthrow the govt.
-Lenin wants peace - Germans respond.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918)
Peace negotations between Russia and Germany
-Trotsky vs. Germans
-Germans make demanding terms - want all of western Russia = rejected and Germans march on
=Lenin wants to consolidate Revolution so Trotsky signs treaty.
-March 1918 = Russia is out.
German control in Russia
They control all resouces of all land lost by Russia
-great for germans
-allies in shock
-germans can move most troops to the Western Front
Ludendorff Defensive
-3 offensives to throw allies off
-shock troops to create suprising havoc.
-big artillery barages aren't used.
-germans cant keep up with selves.
-conditions are bad
-morale falls because troops realize they've been told lies
-running out of supplies and men
-> huge counterattack - us plays a big role, germans realize the games up.
-Wilheilm abdicates
-A republic is created in Germany
-Accept wilson's 14 pts
-armistice day, Nov 11, 1918
- social democrats wanted peace and are blamed for losing the war.
- it isnt a surrender its an armistice.
Casualties of war
-shell shocked
-psychological disorders
-phsyical disorders
-survivors arent in good shape
- about 10 million killed
and many wounded.
The War Beyond Europe
1) Ottoman Empire
-British fosters arabs against Turks
The War Beyond Europe
2) Africa
Germans attacked them and used their troops.
This was a WORLD War!!
the Paris Peace Conference 1919, Realism and Idealism
-brings WWI to an end
-Jan to June
-decipher the post-war world
-wilson has great influence (idealism)
-what to do with germany (every aspect)
-break up of enormous empires - ottoman empire, a-h empire, russia (brest-litovsk), german empire = cease tp exost. mew states/x-colonies
-international system
-conference attended by US president Wilson (gone for 6 months, Repubs are pissed, much criticism).
American Messiah = Wilson
-Paris celebrates his 14 points
-Wilson knows if he doesnt stay his ideals wont get very far.
-despises the old diplomacy
-pushes negotiation and collective security
-having gone to war and sacrificing men he has to ensure peace in honor of the dead
-democracy, doesnt bring repubs.
-He thinks hes serving humanity, reaching out to the population.
-republicans resent him because he didnt bring any of them to conference.
European Rivals = Georges Clemenceau
Prime Minister of France
-Wilsons opponent
-no love for germans
-doesnt want a peace treaty with them
-cares about French national interest only.
European Rivals = David Lloyd George
-British Prime Minister
-doesnt follow Wilson's idealism
-wants to protect the british empire
-wants to get representation for colonies in Parliament (gets one under British control)
European Rivals = Vittoro Orlando
-prime minister in Italy
-plays a lesser role
-concerned about Italy and Italian power.
-Treaty of London, 1915 - promised Italy land for leaving triple alliance. -- want the land!
Men at Conference
-All of these men are politicans
-27 coutnries attended.
-France, US, Britain and Italy play the biggest role.
-> Germany and Russia arent involved in writing the treaty.
Japan as a great power
Considered a great power, Prince Saionji Kinmochi - they werent interested in Europe.
the Threat of Revolution
-underlies whats going on in Paris
-fear of Bolshevism -> their goal is for the spreading of Revolution
-ideal conditions for communism -> Russia is going to take advantage of turmoil.
Sparticist League in Germany
-left wing, radicals, opposed war
-Luxemberg, Liebknecht = leaders-> Propogation against war = jail
-lead communist socialist revolution - huge threat, Russia wants Germany to become Communist.
-as Revolution continues German army is puts it down.
-100s are killed, leaders killed
=> Indication that threat is moving.
Outbreak in Independent Hungary
Communist government takes over
Widespread problems
Labor unrest everywhere
sense of urgency to make peace
European and US power demobilize
-no army to protect against communism.
Spanish influenza
enormous spanish influenza epidemic -> 8 million die from flue
= get europe back on its feet.
The War Aims of the Victors
1) United States
-Wilson wants a restoration of social and economic order (return to the norm/back to a peace term footing)
-national self determination = people have the right to control their destiny, people who share aspects of life deserve this (doesnt apply to former colonies/hes racist/many colonial delegates petition this and are ignored).
-League of Nations
-Not necessarily "punish" the germans - germany is the heart of europe = get it on its feet as a democracy.
The War Aims of the Victors
2) France
-French security and national interest.
- want to create a buffer between France and Germany = Rhineland (independent from Germany)
-French satellite = buffer and germans will be other side of the rough rhineland.
-Wilson and George think this is a violation of German self deetermination and will be a conflict like Alsace Lorain forever.
-Frances wants Alsace Loraine Back.
-Want to rid of german military
-french birthrate is declining - germans isnt.
-want reparations - make germans pay for waht they did - they destroyed everything on way out.
-France and Britain think the US will forgive loans = they still need to pay so they need germanys money.
-they want to keep the alliance between us and britain and themselves alive.
The War Aims of the Victors
3) Great Britain
-destroy the german navy
-german fleet is supposed to go to a nuetral port but it doesnt, it goes to scotland = sailors dont think they were defeated, 74 ships destroy themselves b/c they thought britain was coming to get them = no german fleet
-german empire is gone (loses colonies)
-reparations for the pensions of those in the war - everyone wants money.
-seeks a lenient peace for germany (same as wilson).
The War Aims of the Victors
4) Italy
-Want fulfillment of the Secret Treaty of London, 1915 = Tyrolle and Dalmatia Coast = port cities
-Fiume is supposed to be given to Yugoslavia and Italy = conflict.
-Allies dont want to undermine Yugoslavia
-Italy leaves the conference
-eventually signthe treaty but they dont get Fiume - eventually becomes an international port.
The Decision Making Process
The Big Four = US, Great Britain, France, and Japan
The Great Compromise
1) French Security
-French Security =
- Rhineland permantly demilitarized and occupied for 15 years.
-Germany disarmed (only allowed 100,000 men to police)
-weapon inspections/no heavy weaponry
-British-American Guarantee
-Return of Alsace Lorraine
-Saarland = League of Nations territory, coal field
-help repay German Reparation
The Great Compromise
2) Poland
-needs to be reconstituted, it didnt exist since 1790s
-recreated in 1919
-given access to sea adn carved out of whats indisputably Poland (land locked)
-set up port in Danzic = free city under League of Nations but Poles are in charge.
-Poland isnt connected to port
-they create the POlish corridor to connect = splits germany in 2 = turmoil for germans in the area.
The Great Compromise
3) Reparations
-cant decide what to do
-settle Article 231: the War guilt clause = establishes germany as responsible for war
-germany cant pay
-1921 (may) commission is to be established and a bill will be presented.
The Great Compromise
4) The League of Nations
-established principle of collective security (article 10)
-french want a LN army, wilson says no
-any self-governing state can joine
-Monroe doctrine is secured in article 21
-Russia and Germany cant join

goals: The League's goals included disarmament; preventing war through collective security; settling disputes between countries through negotiation diplomacy; and improving global welfare.
The Dictated Peace
-German delegation shows up = out raged.
-sense in germany that they werent defeated and they were forced to give up or get invaded.
-Austria Hungary ceases to exist = many ethnic germans living int hese states, problematic = self determination.
Mandates on the Colonial World
1) Ottoman Empire = Mandates
-Turkey is independent
-Prince Faisal = son of Sharif Hussain
-Arabs fight Ottomans for allies for an Arab state (come looking for land)
-GB promises the Jews the same land.
= nobody gets land
-GB and France divide Ottoman Empire among selves creating the LEAGUE OF NATION MADATES (to teach them how to govern themselves)
Different types of mandates
There are different types of mandates depending on how much help they need (a mandates = little help, b mandates = a little more help).
=> Land is carved up, its not imperialism, its mandates.
Mandates include for British and French
Finland, Poland, and the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia)
Austria, Hungary, plus Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia; Romania
Syria, Jordan, Israel, Iraq, Iran.
Other League of Nations mandates
New Zealand = Samoa
Australia = New Guinea
Japan = Carolines, Marianas, Marshall and Shantung Peninsula
== Much resentment in China
== Racial equality amendment = all races are equal = doesnt go thru (wilson doesnt like this).
== wants japs, chinese, indians out = resentment in homeland
Success of Failure
-not very successful
-they did they best they could
-> truce for 20 years.
America in Isolation
-Wilson plays a major role in the treaty
-The senate has to ratify the treaty - wilson doesnt bring any republicans with him and doesnt include the senate.
-1918 the Republicans win both houses
-if you believe in peace vote democrate = back fires on Wilson.
-brings treaty back to US and is faced with lots of opposition.
-want to return to isolationism (majority support the League of nations).
Henry Cabot Lodge
=Senator, chairman of foreign relations Committee
-wilson needs their support
-both Lodge and Wilson despise each other.
-Lodge wants to put amendments and hcanges forward = 50 of them, wilson doesnt want to do this.
Henry Cabot Lodge's proposed changes
Article 10: Covenant of the League of Nations
-drives lodge crazy/hates it
-> core of collective security, memebers of league stick together.
= viewed as unconsitutional, dont want teh US obliged to other nations.
-Wilson goes to teh people directly because hes not getting support from senate.
-Tours the US for 3 weeks and has a massive stroke = no position of influence.
Lodge's finished treaty
He adds 50 amendments
-wilson wont allow it
-demands all democrats to reject = nothign passes.
this means that...(3)
1) No treaty of peace with germany
2) no US membership in League of Nations
3) No french security treaty
=> allows GB to do the same thing w/ #3
1920 Presidential Election
-Wilsons chance to debate treaty - thinks he'll be nominated (doesnt)
-James Cox (dem) vs. Warren Harding (Repub)
-Harding is anti-Wilson
-1st election women could vote
-Harding wins
Warren Harding (1921-1923)
-return to normalcy = american interests, isolationism.
-non-membership in the league
-separate peace with germany, Austria, Hungary
-demobilization - wants a small navy
-end of rhineland occupation (1923 for us)- becomes a french effot only
=> pulls back from international obligation because the world is dangerous.
US wants to stay out of Europe and keep Europe out of US
-Bolshevik Revolution
-1920-21 Big recession
-Labor unrest/strikes
-racial tension - KKK
- Race riots, lynchings = very turbulent times
Red scare
Bolshevism is on the march and communism is on its way to the US.
Alien Enemies
Get them out of the US
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
-wave of bombings
-his house is bombed
-> wants them out!
-Palmer Raids = round up 6,000 suspected people and 250 are deported.
Called Soviet archs = sends them to the soviet regardless of where they're from.
Serious Immigration Control
-1924 National Origins Act = bans immigration from East Asia (Japan), puts quotas on # of people who can come into US.
-based on 2% of whatever the number of people of their nationality in the US was in 1890
US after the war
-political isolationism
-not economic and cultural (US -> Europe)
-before war the US was a deter nation - more imports than exports, becomes a creditor nation (more exports)
=makes it harder for european economy to recover.
-heavy tariffs = Forney-McCumber Tariff (1922) 40% tax.
The Hope of Collective Security
-Nov 1920 - 1st meeting of LN in Geneva (no US Russia or Germany)
-League has no enforcement mechanism - no collective army.
-relies on sanctions (politically and economically)
-takes out many issues= court of international justice, collective security, health policies, drug trafficing...
Problem with League
-No military force
-unanimity required for action in both the council and the assembly
-no us
-no germany, russia
= cant be effective w/o some world powers.
-France and GB not willing to give up their militaries or national interests
=any problems with great powers get settled outside the league.
Germany Tries Democracy
-Friedrich Ebert (1919-1925) = President of Germany
-Ebert is a Social democrat = wanted the war, doesnt like communists, wants social order.
-uses paramilitary troops to suppress communists
-feeling that germany is in a cultural Renaissance
-Prussian element in Germany is blamed as aggressive
-get rid of this element
Weimar Prolbems despite democracy and cultural flourishing
-bubbling underneath surface
-economic problems = reparations, land loss, international trade destroyed.
-stab in the back = puts govt in threat = demobilized soldiers believe its the social democrats fault for signing armistice.
-democratic veneer = not as real as it is said to be.
Germany Tries Democracy
Beer Hall Putsch, 1923
-German faction of politics
-extreme right (hitler)
-1923 Hitler is running the Nazi party in S. Germany
-takes control of party
-runs a coup that they want to spread all over germany (anti-democracy)
-Ludendorff is involved = coup fails, Hitler is sent to jail, and Lud gets off.
-Writes "miencamft" in jail = my struggles.
-Hitler knows he has to get legitimate means to get power.
-1925 - Paul Von Hindenburg = elected president (1925-1933)
Fascism in Italy
-the new alternative
-resentment/paramiltary/political crisis/economic crisis
-Benito Mussolini = former ocmmunist, radicalized in war -italian nationalist.
-feeling they didnt get wat they were promised.
-1922 Mussolini is asked to form a fascist government by King
-1932 = What is Fascism? By Mussolini = anti-pacifism, anti-international institutions, anti-communist, anti-democracy, sacrifice, duty, heroism, authority, the state is absolute, indv subordinated to sate, will to power and empire.
The French Peace
-Britain steps back from european issues just wants to balance power.
-1922 Germans default on reparatoins - sending goods to france.
-1923 French occupy Ruhr valley in Germany to force them to give coal (violation of the League)
-hurts the French reputation
-the german govt tells the workers to strike - french bring their own miners
-german government has a group of miners who are unemployed = germans print money = HYPERINFLATION
-creates an unstable economy, hurts the middle classes savings
1921 Bill to Germany
Bill to Germany they owe $33 billion.
-only really have to repay half
-end up paying $4.5 billion in total
-French pay more
The Dawes Plan
US gets involved in helping Germany back on its feet economically.
-Plan by Charles Dawes
-American private banks put loans into Germany to revitalize economy
-so US can get money from france and GB = successful until 1929.
Lacarno Treaties (who it involves)
-1923- Gustav Stresemann, German Foreign Minister
-Briand = French Foreign Minister
-want to work together to solve problems.

Oct, 1925 = agreement at Lacarno Italy = outside LN
-Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium attend.
is the typical german but realizes something must be done diplomatically = great for allies.
Lacarmo Treaty does...
1) Germany recognized its border with France and Belgium.
2) Germany accepted the permanent demilitarizaitno in Rhineland
3) Germany, France and Belgium agree not to attack one another
4) Italy and GB guarantee the treaty and will intervene in cases of a flagrant violation by either side
5) France agreed to reduce occupation of Rhineland and the powers of inspection teams.
Problem with the Lacarno Treaty
-only deals with western borders, 1 sided pact.
-countries on other border feel sold out.
-fear germany will go easy
-germany isnt disarming - testing stuff in russia.
Arstice Briand
Knows hes got to do more
-looks for ways to protect france
-creates alliances all around germany =
Franco-Belgian, Franco-Polish, Franco-Czech, Franco-Romanian, Franco-Yugolsavian
-all outside LN
-would create a 2 front war for germany.
Maginot Line
-French build this line between France and Germany
-defenseive position against German advancement
The Pact of Paris, 1928
-Briand wants the US in.
-Never attack each other
-US thinks something must be up (Kellog)
-Kellog wants everyone involved.
=Pact of Paris/ Briand-Kellog
-15 countries renounce war, no enforcement, no commitment
The Briand Plan for European Union, 1930
-common market
-security system
-arbitration ystem
=integrate Germany so much that they become reliable on Europe

==> Great illusion of security and democracy in Europe.
Japan the Emerging Power in the Pacific
-Challenges to Japanese Growth
-shortage of raw materials
-shortage of agricultural land
-excess population, land and food supply
-prevent west from dominating east asia and threatening japan
-colonial expansion - prevent the west from expanding to Korea and Manchuria
Japan the Emerging Power in the Pacific
-Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905
-w/ Russia
-Japan gets Liaotung Peninsula and Port Arthur
-Japan gets privileged position in Manchuria
-Japan gets a protectorate over Korea (annexed in 1910)
-Secret Taft-Katsura agreement = US in Philippines and Japan in Korea.
Japan the Emerging Power in the Pacific
-Japan is expanding to keep west out, support economy and natural resources.
-modernization creates social economic and cultural disruption
-expanding takes peoples minds off of rapid changes/tension
-social darwinism and racism in east asia among intellectuals in colonized areas - we need to get strong
-belief that the japanese race is the superior race in asia
-japan has a monroe doctrine in asia.
Japan the Emerging Power in the Pacific
-Japan in WWI
-1902=anglo-japanese alliance
-1914 joins allies in war - fighting for civlization
-dec, 1914 - take over German colonies in asia (not a challenge) = Shantung, Marshall Isles, Carolines = take over asia and consolidate power.
-want manchuria (russias) = opportunity to take it while they're at war
-> europeans arent paying attention to asia = good opp.
-make an effort to get official control of Manchuria and Mongolia = want to be recongized by weak China (just went thru revolution)
-worried about the nationalist vision in china.
The "21 Demands" Dec, 1914
-submitted to chinese government by japan
-japan assumes Kiaochow on the Shantung Peninsula from Germany
-mongolia and manchuria would be reserved for japanese epxlotiation and colonization
-japan would control coal deposits in those areas
-the other powers must be excluded from further concessions in china
-japan would guide chinas miltary, economic, political development.
->china isnt really given a choice, accepted
->europeans accept this too because theyr at war
-> US doesnt accept, Wilson is furious (open door notes..)
->US puts presure on Japan to take demands back
The Lansing-Ishii Accords, Nov, 1917
-Robert Lansing = US secretary of state
-Kikujiro Ishii = Japanese diplomat
-the US recognizes japans special interests in China
-the US and Japan pledge to respec tteh open door in china
-the us and japan pledge to respect chinas territorial integrity = cant carve it up and turn it into colonies
- the 21 demands are generally recinded (not entirely true)
Japan the Emerging Power in the Pacific
The Paris Peace Conference, 1919
-Japan only interested in questions pertaining to asia
-japan gets control of Shantung peninsula, 99 year lease(china outraged and leave conference)
-japan gets league of natoins mandates inteh pacific (seen as a colony by china)
-racial equality amendment is denied.
Pacific Rivals: the US and Japan in the 1920s
-during and after the war there is a major rivalry (esp in naval building) = arms race
-fear that GB and Japan could combine = threat to US (US fleet would be divided between 2 oceans)
-1919 = dry dock in Pearl Harbor - bulk of fleet is there = aggrevates Japan
-nobody wants this tension/arms race - building ships is expensive, countries dont have money, US recession.
-1921 Harding calls for a naval armament conference and the major powers come to the US
Pacific Rivals: the US and Japan in the 1920s
-Washington Conference 1921-1922
=limit the arms race, reduce armament, and deal with China.
-imposed a tonnage ratio on big battle ships 5:5:3:1.67:1.67 (US, GB, Japan, Italy and France)
=not equal, limits sizes of the ships
-10 year moratorium on new consturction of cpaital ships
-no new fortifications on new construction of capital ships.
-US does this in Pearl Harbor and GB in Singapore
-Japan to evacuate Siberia
-Japan to restore Shantung to China
-anglo-japanese alliance ended
-cooperation in asia
=>Turning point in international relations, great powers voluntarily reduce armament and agree
Pacific Rivals: the US and Japan in the 1920s
-Problems with the Washington Conference
-Japanese right waing nationalists = Japan accepts an inferior position
-US and GB fleets are very widespread and Japans is concentrated.
-no more foritifcation = good for Japan = less vulnerable
-aircraft carriers = can be used as bases if isles arent fortified.
Pacific Rivals: the US and Japan in the 1920s
-Japans new emperor: Hirohito
-undergoes a lot of changes in market = more markets.
-restrictions on just isles
-Zaibatsu = private conglomerations of production (e.g Mitsubishi) = important to economy
-increase democritization
-military is gaining influence
-authoritarianism vs. democracy
-US becomes a major trading partner with Japan
-racial tensions between US and Japan (banned from entering US)
-Fear about naval arms race
London Naval Conference, 1930
-Ratio imposed on smaller ships 10:10:7 (US, GB, Japan)
-France and Italy dont sign.
-parity in submarines (all have same #)
-defer construction of new capital ships
-japan withdraws in 1936.
China: The Sick man of asia
-Sun Yat-Sen, president = get Japan out, European concessions.
-Very fragmented China - he has no control - warlords do
-Chang Tso-Lin has Manchuria and is working with Japanese.
-Wu Pei-Fu has Peking and Europeans are dealing with him.
-outrage in China because of Shantung Peninsula
=> Nationalism outbreak "May 4th Movement"
China the sick man of asia
May 4th Movement
Nationalist outbreak
-starts as a student movement
-active participation
China the sick man of asia:
Yat-Sen pushes nationalism, deomcracy, peoples welfare
-Kuomintang = is in charge of Chinese nationalist party (KMT)
-needs help so he turns to the soviet union.
-The Communist International is formed = deal w/ soviets, help him organize KMT, helps organize military.
-Created Whampoa Military Academy under control of Chiang Kal-Shek (Yet-Sens prodigy) = not a communist
-1925 Yet-Sen dies and he takes over
KMT announcement
-Shek announces that the KMT is natoinal government in China (1926-1928)
-embarks on the Nrothern expedition to take over and unite country
-has to work with chinese communist party because of soviets.
-1928 in Beijing/Peking = uniting
= Japanese nightmare is losing Manchuria
-boycots, KMT influence in Manchuria => gain control of it
-US gives up concessions in China - no control
=> US becomes Chinas most favored nation.
Chinese Communist Party, 1921
Mao Zedong, 1919
-becomes radicalized
-alliance between KMT and communist power until 1927 (Shek turns against them and suppresses them)
-Mao becmoes important
French Indochina
-made up of a # of dif countries
-French treat Vietnam as 3 units = Tonkin-North, Annam-Middle, and Cochinchina-south
-administered differently
-WWI increasing opposition to french rule, esp in Vietnam.
=self determination doesnt apply to them = resentment.
Ho Chi Mihn
-travels world and sees colonialism
-Ho is the leader of Vietnamese
-demands things from Wilson at Paris peace conference
-disillusioned by French socialists
-turns to communists in 1920s - becomes a communist
-1929 in Hong Kong - meets other nationalists (e.g. Vonguyen Giap and Le Doc Tho)
= they found the Indo-Chinese Communist party.
The British Raj: India
-India isnt under total direct rule = indirect rule working w/ the existing ruling elite.
-outbreaks of Indian Nationalism
1919, Amritsar Massacre
-indian nationalist outbreak
-catalyst for indian nationalist/independence movement.
-they thought hteyd get more autonomy for helping in war-
-most soldiers were Sikhs (predisposed warriors)
Sikh Gathering
April 13, 1919 = 10,000 Sikhs gather in huge garden in Punjab = religious day
- demonstration against the Rowlatt Act = extended British powers against suspected terrorists = no gatherings of more than 4 people, not lots of people get message
-in response the British army is called out
-Reginal Dyer, w/o warning they fire against demonstrators = no way out except thru british.
-goes on for 10 minutes = 400 killed, 1,200 wounded.
-Dyers men go back to camp and doesnt help the idnians.
=> Galvanized the nationalists
Mohandas K. Gandhi
-Indian independence on widescale
-worked with political mastermind Jawaharal Nehru
and Gandhi is the spiritual mastermind.
The Inter-American Region
-massive imbalance of power between US and Latin America
-mythology about relationship between US and latin America = sisterhood = not realistic
Legal Justification
-Monroe Doctrine, 1823 (enforced by britain because its in their interest)
-Roosevelt collary, 1904
-security and economic
-speak softly and carry a big stick = back up claims
-US has the power so they have to back up what they've said.
Case Studies:
Panama Canal
-essential for fleets
-US fostered Revolution between Panama and Colombia and now lease it for $250,000 a year.
= makes trade a lot easier.
-Caribean takes on a new meaning
Dollar Diplomacy
= if you can make a country stable it will be a more stable place to imvest = imperial capitalism but not called that
-the islands of Haiti and the Dominican republic = hispanola
-they are the gates to the panama canal = whoever controls them controls canal
-only threat to US
-Wilson, 1912, wants the Monroe Doctrine intensified and says he wants to spread "good government" to Latin american countries so they learn responsible and moral governing.
Revolution in Haiti
1915 there is a revolution in Haiti
-concern with european intervention
-sends marines
-control banks, customs, treasury = run their govt
-new consitution - pretty much a protectorate
-similiar thing done in Dominican republic/same actions 1916-1924
-> enforcement of Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Collary
Case Studies:
-revolution in Nicaragua
-1914 - US and Nicaragua sign threaty giving US permission to run their finances -> run by the govt no longer private investment
-Cesare Augusto Sandino = outraged, forms an army of poor people - low level insurgency
-> increasing opposition
Case Studies:
-most "spectacular" intervention
-Porfirio Diaz, 1876-1911, dictator
-reason for good relations between US and Mexico = encourages forgeign investment
-> Increasing resentment to him and his ideals
Revolution in Mexico
-1911 - Revolution
-Replaced by Francisco Madero 1911-1913 = pushes for reform
-1913 another coup
and Victoriano Huerto replaces him 1913-1914
Victoriano Huerto
-ties to the elite
-> Drives wilson nuts - epitmizes lacking good govt.
-witholds huerto's recognition and supports huertos enemies (encouraging the constitutionalists)
Visit to tampicko
-April 14, 1914 = US ships in ocean visits Tampicko without permission
-they are arrested, outraged and demand release and an apology
-commander of ship demands a 21 gun salute, refused
-> Wilson orders occupaton of port, Vera Cruz (7 months)
Genral Vestiano Carranza
1914-1920 takes over
-US offers to support and help them - refused.
US looks for alternatives to him and find Francisco Pancho Villa
Francisco Pancho Villa
represents the poor
-hooks up with Emiliano Zapata
=men of peace
-1915 US declares themsevles neutral and recognizes Carranza.
-Villa is being suppressed and feels betrayed.
Provokation of US intervention by Villa
Decides to provke US intervention to get a rally for himself
-1916 him and 400 men raid town in New Mexico -> US is outraged and demands his capture
-sends military led by General Pershing
-can't find Villa all over mexico = resentment, 1917 pulled out of Mexico and falls apart.
Mexicos new consitution
-restricts amount of foreign investment allowed
-limits power of the church
-extensive land reform
-Feb 1918 - another proclamation - oil is now a national resource in Mexico => Govt concessions, govt gets profits on all raw materials = conflic tw/ the US
Alvaro Obregon, 1920-1924
comes to powr and works out a compromise with the US
-oil declaration only applies to things created after declaration
-US recognizes their govt.
The Functioning of the Interamerican System:
-Pan-American Union Formed
1889 = try to come up with rules and regulations to impose order on Latin America
-principle of equality/share common values and interests.
Argentina challenging Pan Americanism
-Argentina wants to see this system = thorne in US side.
-far from US not as at risk of intervention.
-close links with europe - cultural and trading relations
-engage and lead opposition
-argentina competes economically w/ us (beef/wheat)
-most other places arent competition
-> challenge right to intervention
Problem with League Intervention and Pan-Americanism
@ 1 point or another Latin America was a member of the league
-US isnt in the lague
-wahts appropriate role of league intervention
-wilson inserted article 21 = monroe doctrine is protected
=> effort is precluded by tenion
-US replaces European trade with latin america during war => creates a bigger imbalance.
The Soviet Union in the 1920s
-1917 Revolution in Russia
-2 revolutions - March and October 1917
-temporary govt under Alexander Kerensky - keeps Russia in war => galvanizes opposition and gives revolutionaries a way in.
-VI Lenin = bread, peace, land.
Oct. 1917 Bolsheviks take over
The Separate Peace, 1918
-separate peace with Germany
-the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, under german conditions
-Trotsky is forced to accept terms because germany is going to attack (led by Hindburg and Ludendorff)
-they lose all european posessions
-germany uses the independent republics they just got for resources to counter the british blockade.
-essential to concentrate communist revolution.
New Threats Emerge in Soviet
-counterrevolution = white russians - not unified but fight against the reds = loyalists to Tsar Nicholas II
-Tsar is in hiding in the Ural Mountains and is murdered w/ his family by the reds.
-White and Red Russians put together armies because troops are weak.
White Russians
-Admiral Kolchak = running alternative government in Siberia
-General Denkin and Baron Wrangel = running troops in south
- members of tsars forces
-in control all around heartland of russia.
Red Army
Leon Trotsky = builds army for bolsheviks, amazing leader.
Soviet Civil War
brutal and barbaric
-bolsheviks control of old capital
-move it to moscow
-Civil war intervention to help white russians - former allies come in
-help from GB, US, Italy and Japan
-> worried that the reds are acting on behalf of the germans
-worried that germans will get the supplies sent to russia before withdrawal, occupy ports.
--> Anti-bolshevik and anti-german intervention.
-not that effective but it creates a mythology that the allies want to destory communists and russian revolution.
-mid to late 1920s -bolsheviks are victorious.
Polish Intevention
-recently reconsituted
-1920 Marshall Jozef Pilsudski = take advantage of russian weakness and gets land back they used to have.
-attack russia in 1920 (natinoalists)
-gain an incredible amount of territory from russia.
-Pilsudski is pushed all the way back by the red army and they were on the verge of caputring polands new capital.
Treaty of Riga
-pressure from allies and "miracle of warsaw" = force 2 sides to compromise.
-Treaty of Riga, 1921 = polands favor, gets a lot of Russian territory (out of Ukraine) and a little German territory = hated for this.
The Advent of the New Economic Policy (Soviet)
-late 1920's Lenin can turn to issues in Russia (social and economic)
-famine and starvation in 1920s
-communists try to impose collectivations = people are hording things, not producing much, govt isnt recognized, all debts are repudiated (people dont support this)
-1921 starvation, social disorder.
NEW ECONOMIC POLICY = allows small scaled capitalism = allows for small suprlus for market sales, with collectiviation.
= alleviates crisis a little.
The German Connection with Soviet
-nobody wants anythign to do with Russia or Germany
-1922 David Lloyd George tries to solve issues and has a conference in Genoe, Italy.
-France is demanding reparations (Tsars debts), German and S.U. are allowed at meeting.
-the Versailles treaty is used to try to convince the Soviets to pay back debts (clemenceau demanded reparations in the treaty).
-germany excluded from conversation
Rapallo Treaty
1922, Separate treaty with Soviet and Germany
-Germany renounced repartions
-germany renounced all claims to reparations
-each accord the otehr diplomatic recognition
-trade relations established
-secret military relations continued
=> uproar in the international community and dont know about military secrecy.
Lenin is sick
1921 he is very sick, and there is conflict in who will take over after him - between Trotsky and Stalin.
Joseph Stalin
Secretary of Bolsheviks
-tries to claim the heir
-when Lenin dies in 1924 he takes over.
-Disagreement with Trotsky and Lenin in that they blieve: that revolution must be permanent until it spread through the world.
-he bleieves that they should instill socialism in 1 country and this would provide a model/example/beacon for everyone to emulate.
-build up economy/life = 5 year plans = to revolutionize and collectivize soviet society.
-brutal and successful.
International System after WWI
-International system during and after the war was completely devastated
-All countries need to get their own economies and international trade flows back on track
-British Blockade = all international trade flows cut off into Germany = fundamentally changed trade flows from U.S. (Central Europe to GB & France)
-German U-boat attacks around Europe (disrupted trade to England and France)
-International investment patterns have changed (U.S. moved from Germany to GB & France, filled vacuum in Latin America.
-In comparison to pre-war, U.S. and Japan grew enormously economically.
-Domestic economies are concentrating on military/war fighting capacity.
-Huge physical destruction in France (industrial areas included), devastated by Germans (scorched earth policy) and fighting.
-Allies have terrible economical situations
*Commercial Expansion of the U.S.:
-U.S. goes from being a deter nation (more imports than exports) to being a creditor nation (more exports than imports).
-During & after war the U.S. has the largest economy in the world.
-U.S. economy changes a lot = consumerism
-Reason US becomes such a consumer country/lots of Commercial expansion:
Ford and Mass production: more competitive
*Commercial Expansion of Japan:
-In Asia, Japan fills the vacuum of the European powers
*The Dilemma of German Reparations:
-Established War Guilt Clause: 231 Versailles Treaty
-Allies need reparations from Germans (damage and debt repayment).
-Reparations during conference is complicated = how do you determine what Germany owes (May, 1921 – Bill given to Germany)
-How do you make Germany pay? They don’t have the money and there is no mechanism of transferring currency (gold standard is gone).
Allies come up with # of ideas to get around problem – alternatives aren’t good:
-e.g. 1) If Germany exports manufactured goods to France and Great Britain, so that the Germans get a surplus of French and British currency to pay them with = allows Germany’s economy to recover (criticism/tension: why should they benefit?/domestic producers in France and GB can’t recover).
-e.g. 2) Reparations in kind = you pay in goods (tractors, automobiles, manufactured goods, etc) finished products are shipped to France and GB in whatever they owe (criticism/tension: Domestic objections)
-e.g. 3) German workers come to France and GB come to these places and rebuild places – manual labor value (criticism/tension: labor unions need work, domestic problems)
London Schedule of Payments, 1921:
Committee that comes together to find out how much they owe – they owe 132 billion gold marks = $33 billion. Work out a convoluted system in which Germany only really needs to pay half = $16.5 billion. Come up with a mixed system: reparations in kind and money.
=>Feeling in Germany and Europe is that this is too big of a burden to impose on Germany. This is ruining Germany (they default in 1922 @ the Ruhr Valley, coal).
Ruhr Valley occupation
-1923 – French go into the Ruhr and occupy it (important industrial area in Germany), to force them to pay reparations by mining coal. Germans go on strike and the French bring in their own workers (until 1925) = huge animosity in Germany, lowers French Reputation, and creates hyperinflation in Germany (printed money to pay workers) and US gets involved with the Dawes Plan (private American bankers help Germans recover).
Dawes Plan works until
-Dawes Plan works very successfully until 1929 (heavily relying on US involvement).
Owen Young
-In 1929, Bankers in U.S. focus on this situation again = Owen Young
-Young Plan = Germany can’t realistically be expected to do this – revises the amount of reparations the Germans are expected to pay and lowers that amount.
Bank of International settlment
-Also set up the Bank of International Settlement = system for repayment (U.S. private enterprise).
Inter allied debt assumption
-Assumption (Clemenceau in particular) that the U.S. will help with reparations to help Europeans recover from war devastation and or forgive ally loans.
-French paid in blood = U.S. will pay in cash (their contribution).
-Wilson doesn’t do this – he wants loans repaid.
Each Ally owes...
-Britain owes the U.S. $4 billion
-France owes the U.S. $3 billion
-Italy owes the U.S. $1.6 billion
World War Foreign Debt Commission
-U.S. grants the allies a 3 year reprieve = interest accrues but they are expected to pay in 1922.
-1922 – World War Foreign Debt Commission set up by Warren Harding to deal with debts and get money back.
-Britain agrees in 1923 and signs a debt agreement.
-France waits until 1926 to start paying back loans (only because the congress threatens to put a loan embargo on France so they can’t receive any loans).
-1920 = Problem of Protectionism = mainly because of the breakup of empires post-WWI and the new countries that form, and the United States.
-Austro-Hungarian Empire functioned as a free-trade zone (no customs, tariffs, people, and no impediments) = when it collapses in 1918 and new countries are formed free trade zone disappears.
-These countries (including Poland, Czech and Yugoslavia) believe they can be self-sufficient/autarky (economic nationalism=build new industries) = don’t want to compete with well-established industrial economies (GB, France, U.S.)
-They put tariff walls around themselves to prevent foreign goods from coming in at a competitive rate) and put quotas on how much trade can come in = this limits trade in Europe/sheltered economic system.
The Problem of Protectionism (US)
-U.S. begins to do the same thing – they want to disentangle themselves from “rotten” Europe and protect new industries from international competition.
1921 – The Emergency Tariff Act
protect American agricultural interests
1922 – Fordney-McCumber Act
= 40% tax on all imports – less competition for American Products.
Tariffs start in Europe
-Europeans start doing the same thing (automobiles)
= Tariff War that inhibits International Trade
-counterproductive for the U.S. (U.S. wants Europe to recover so it can be invested in and get paid back but uses tariffs).
-Europe can’t generate US dollars – makes it hard to buy U.S. goods and pay loans.
*Reconstructing the International Monetary System
-Countries want the gold standard back so that there can be an international economy.
-Gold is a finite resource that is intrinsically valuable = ideal commodity to underpin an international economic system.
-Every country must have a fixed relationship to Gold = conversion rate because of currency relation to gold.
-Pound Sterling is “as good as gold” = strong currency/doesn’t fluctuate against gold/stable to act in the stead of gold.
-U.S. currency is being recognized worldly.
-Gold standard is different than pre-war. Post-war = Gold Exchange Standard = system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold.
*America, the World’s Banker, 1925-1929
-Depends on the U.S. involvement in the international economy.