Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

178 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Inter-American Cooperation: The Western Hemisphere
-The U.S. has the good neighbor policy with Latin America (made by FDR).
-Latin America doubted this, but the U.S. proved they were good neighbors during the 1920's.
=> Creates Hemispheric Solidarity
Inter-American Cooperation: Panama Conference
1939 - Hemispherical Neutrality, only allowed merchant ships in the western hemisphere
Inter-American Cooperation: Havana Conference
1940 - No-transfer Resolution (After fall of france)
Inter-American Cooperation: Lend-Lease Aid
-1941: Lease aid for Latin American states, USSR, GB and France.
-President can deem where to lend aid to
-gives money to L.A. because they're republics.
=> By 1945 the U.S. has indicated interest in being a good neighbor.
1945: Act of Chapultepec
in Mexico
-L.A. and the US argue that a common diplomacy/interest/economy has emerged
-> Tries to create something like the League of nations.
WWII brings 2 things to the Western Hemisphere:
1) Greater Equality
2) W. Hemisphere is not damaged.
European Division: German dominance
-Europe before Operation Barbarossa (June 1941) was controlled mainly by Germany.
-Europe was @ the height of German control (even industrial area in USSR).
European Divisoin: Liberation
By May 1945 Europe is leberated but much of the land is destroyed.
-Europe demands reparations for destruction.
Central Powers occupied
The Central powers come under occupation of allied powers (G.B., France, USSR, and US).
A New Order In Asia: Japanese Expansion
-height of japanese expansion (they're all along the coast of asia)
USSR and Japan: non-aggression pact
sign a pact in 1941
End of WWII for Japan
by the end of WWI Japan loses most asian territories
-all countries had declared war on Japan.
-Demonstration: All asian countries had representatives @ peace treaty signing.
3 Areas of Occupation:
1) Korea (S - USSR, N-US)
2) Japan
3) China (problem because China is not united - Nationalists/Shek and Communists/Mao)

=> It is not clear how long these areas will be occupied
4 Policemen of the World:
1) W.Europe = GB
2) W. Hemisphere = US
3) C. Europe/S.E. Europe = USSR
4) Far East = China
End to Imperialism in Asia
Atlantic Charter = end to imperialism
The Middle East Evolves
-issues of imperialism - colonies that helped GB during the war were promised different things
-GB needs the Middle East for oil and have their hands on it.
North = USSR
South= GB
=> strategic value in supplying oil and aid
4 issues effecting development in the Middle East: 1) Imperialism
Pre-WWII they were all colonies
4 issues effecting development in the Middle East: 2) Nationalism
Arab nationalism = they see GB and French as becoming weaker - cant control them as much (see this in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria = overthrow direct/indirect imperialism)
4 issues effecting development in the Middle East: 3) Security
The Issue of security = oil flow wont be secured.
4 issues effecting development in the Middle East: 4) Spheres of Influence
Not a colony but heavily influenced by a superpower (e.g. Iraq)
Stalin's Dilemma
=End of WWII ther are countries who declared war on the USSR and countries who adopted pro-german ways
-he wants to make sure this doesnt happen again
-he wants reparations for destruction in USSR
Churchill's Dilemma
-he wants to recreate "balance of power" between France, Italy, GB, Germany
-parliament wants to know what will happen post WWII (they want to revive GB economy/give soldiers jobs)
- want to assure British security
Yalta Conference, February 1945
-The Big 3 fissures @ the end.
Yalta Conference, February 1945: Stalin
-Wants reparations and to secure the eastern front
Yalta Conference, February 1945: Churchill
balance of power, secure GB
Yalta Conference, February 1945: FDR
Democracy in asix, restore self-determination, economic propserity for US (wartime to peacetime), and create the 4 policemen of the world.
The "Percentage Agreement"
-Stalin and Churchill compromise
- the 2 countries appoint % of an intern government
Hungary and Yugo 50/50
Greeece 90/10
Romania 10/90
Bulgaria 20/80
The Issue of Poland
-Katyn Forest Massacre - Polish officers found dead in Poland, killed by USSR in 1943.
-> Polish government in exile wants to investigate, Stalin is pissed and installs a pro-USSR government in Poland.
-Breaks alliance w/ London Poles
The Shift in Borders
Tehran and Yalta = border issues discussed and refined.
-Soviet need shorter frontier
-Anglo-American commitment to liberate Poland/Czech
-> USSR wants this territory, and GB/US dont want this.
-> USSR shifts Polands borders into Germany.
Dilemma with border shift
Dilemma of ethnic germany = dont want to create issues
-germans pushed out and into Germany and Poles and Czechs move in.
-Greco-Turkish war precedent
New Leaders, Changed Terms:
-FDR dies April 12, 1945, Truman takes over
-Churchill is replaced by Atlee.
German Territory divided
-Germany and austria under military occupation
-Vienna and Berlin Divided
-divided by 4 powers = US/USSR/GB/France
-eventual political and economic reunification
-political, diplomatic and economic alignment uncertain.
Yalta Conference (Feb, 1945)
-pooled reparations from germany
-putative treatment
-freedom promised for E. Europe
Postdam Conference (August 1945): Changes
-zonal reparations from Germany (USSR zone pays USSR)
-rehabilitation of germany
-coalition government for Poland (Stalin promises elections and Truman demands immediate election)
Atomic Diplomacy
-Truman: US is willing eventually to share knowledge on peaceful uses.
-US would not divulge info in short-term
-fear of destructive consequences if divulge information -> directed at USSR and GB but more USSR
Declaration of War: Stalin
-Stalin election speech - February 1946
-Foreign policy statement
-Communists vs. Capitalists war is inevitable
-enemy name not mentioned
Declarations of War: Churchill
-Iron Curtain Speech, March 6, 1946
-no longer PM
-Stettin to trieste
-enemy named: SU
-Hints at soviet goal = fruits of war
-sought understanding w/ USSR, supported by all of the english speaking world. N
Nuclear Disarmament: Baruch Plan
June 14, 1946
-US to UN
-International control of nuclaer weaponry and nuclear research
-peaceful uses of nuclear technology
-eventual disarmament
Nuclear Disarmament: Gromyko Plan
June 19, 1946
-ban use
-ban production
-destruction of all existing weaponry
-> immediate effect on US to weaken US position to USSR advantage.
The Iron Curtain Descends, 1946: Yugoslavia and Bulgaria
-Oct. 27, 1946 Communist party "wins election" in Bulgaria (not a free election)
-Communist government establishes control over Yugolsavia (led by Tito)
=> looks as if Churchill was right, USSR out of control.
The Balkan Peninsula, 1947
-USSR goes beyond sphere of infeluence
-Stalin sends a message to Turkish government -> wants lost territory back, wants to get half the Turkish straits to prevent them from allowing german use of the straits and in Greece there is a communist party trying to overthrow the monarch.
The Balkan Peninsula, 1947: Aid
1945-1946: Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Albania send aid to communist party in greece -> all under USSR percentage agreement.
The Balkan Peninsula, 1947: GB aid
GB tries to give aid to monarchy but GB is in bad shape because of WWII.
-Feb 1947 - if GB govt continues to support Greeks it will go bankrupt -> persuades the US to come in and help.
Truman's Dilemma
-British bankrupcy?
-Churchill's predictions are coming true
-Stalin's statements - inevitable war
-soviet military strength = GB, US demobilized, USSR have 6x that of collective allies.
-elections in e. Europe
-communist insurgency in Greence
-atomic standoff
=> Feb, 1947 - Truman realizes that the US must get involved to protect the world froM USSR expansion (it costs a lot tho/problem)
-> has to scare people into shifting gears.
The Truman Doctrine
-March 12, 1947
-2 camps against each other:
Free people(Greeks/Turks/etc)VS. totalitarianism/armed minorities/outside pressures
-no names used
The Truman Doctrine: The SOLUTION
solution = massive economic aid to advance self-determination - $400 million requested.
-Greece/Turkey in danger the middle east
-reminds people of teh Lend-Lease act - no difference (its in US interest/common threat)
The Truman Doctrine: the Domino theory
-if country a is in danger and falls, country b bordering them falls too.
-> Greece falls, Turkey is faced with Totalitarianism, govt on 3 borders, turkey falls, Middle east is in danger (USSR gets oil)
=> gives USSR an advantage in future conflict.
The Marshall Plan, June 1947
delivered @ Harvard Commencement
-US must help return of world to normal economic health
-enemy: hunger, poverty, desperation and chaos and its champions
-call for European coordination in economic recovery
-the other half of the Truman Doctrine
-Delivered by Secretary of State George C. Marshall
=>U.S. aid and European cooperation.
Europe's Response: June
June 26, 1947: European Foreign And Finance Ministers meet to discuss U.S. offer
-USSR/Poles/Czechs present- want aid
-> Conditions: recepients must offer budget data and offer US advisors input on budget and open economy to free trade and foreign investment (threat to USSR, so they leave)
Europe's Response: September
-W. European nations produce a 4 year plan for economic plan
-free trade
-investment across borders
-US aids
-> Beginning of European Union and Economic Recovery
The Iron Curtain Descends, 1947: Poland, Hungary, Romania
-January 19, 1947: Polish elections create communist government
-May 1947: Communists Seize power in Hungary (it was split 50/50 in % agreement)
-Dec 30, 1947: Romania People's Republic declared (communist)
=> almost all predicted countries have fallen
Policy of Containment
-ambassador to USSR - George F. Kennedy - publishes "the sources of USSR govt" published by Mr. X
=Describes USSR expansion in historical context - Tsars wanted the same things, they have their own world-wide agenda.
Policy of Containment: Solution
SOLUTION = USSR pressure can be contained via counterforce/contain agression.
-US can force moderation on Kremlin (USSR White house) via containment and counter-froce.
-long term struggle
-US can win by letting USSR fall on own weaknesses
-not a quick struggle: Cold War.
The COMINFORM created, Oct. 5, 1947
-effort to solidify communist efforts
-1942: Comintern dissolved
-1947: COMINFORM created (Communist Information Bureau).
-coordinate actions of communists parties in the world (Effectively in Europe)
-collaboration w/ non-communist parties forbidden.
The Western Response to Communist gains:
-French elections: Oct 1947, communists might win election so the US govt provides financial aid to these parties (centrist parties).
-> coordinate with the US and GB against USSR
Czechoslavakia: An Anomaly
-pre-WWII sympathetic to USSR
-1946: Free elections, communist party wins.
-capitalism brought the destruction
-still friendly with the west
Czechoslavakia: 1948 new elections
-new elections and communists expected to lose because US would supply aid and USSR didnt help recovery.
-1948 there is a coup led by the communists and they take over and work with USSR
The Brussels Pact, March 17, 1948
-defense pact
-direct response to Czech coup
-involves GB, France, Luxembourge, Belgium and Netherlands
-article 51 of the UN = Charter sited = regional countries handle regional issues
-economic recovery
-enemies: germany (named) and USSR (unnamed)
-coincides with revival of conscription in the US (if war breaks out in europe the US will step in to help.)
Elections in Italy, 1948
-large and powerful communist party
-appears likely to win
-US response: fund campaign of Italian Christian Democrats
-Christian democrats win election
The Problem of Yugoslavia
-Josef Broz (Tito) = communist in control
-dynamic leader, fought in war, doesnt use USSR help
-independent and is able to liberate Yugoslavia without USSR aid.
-commonly criticizes Stalin
-cominform is created and Tita and Yugoslavian delegates are expelled in 1948.
=> hope to get Tito to work w/ him - doesnt, Tito sends diplomatic envoys to Italy, France and US to get Western economic aid.
= constant irritant to Stalin
-if Tito strives other places will break away from USSR too
Germany: The Original Plan
-Four occupied secotrs, eventual reunification
-demilitarization, denazification, and deindustrialization.
-> Germany hasnt been realigned because of the original plan for it
-when germany was deemed safe they will pull out.
-US/GB/France realize Germany needs a role in recovery - back away from deindustrialization idea.
The Plan Changes: Germany
-economic recovery of Germany central to european recovery with the Marshall plan
-creation of "BIZONIA" Jan, 1947
-Bizonia currency = deutschemark, recovery in US and GB sphere.
-> approach France to join in (against communism), they do
-Trizonia is created June 1948
-> USSR concerns - this is another state so they cut off access to Berlin
The Berlin Blockade, June 1948-May 1949
-raods are closed by USSR
-violation of Potsdam Accords - access to roads in Berlin
-goal: remove Western presence in USSR sphere (embarassment)
-Capitalist way of life is returning propserty to W. Berlin
-if access is cut off then W. Berlin cant get goods
The Berlin Blockade: Response
-Solution #1: Blitzkreig
-general Lucius Clay: military commander of US, sends tanks, dont need roads
The Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 12, 1949
-airlift goods to W. Berlin
-French, GB and US send goods
-lane lands every 30 minutes with goods
=succeeds (no radar)
-by may 12, roads are fixed.
The Berlin Airlift: Nuclear Diplomacy
-US sent 60 B-29 Bombers to Britain by the end of 1948
-could deliver a-bomb to Soviet targets if airlift is messed with
-1st use of nuclear diplomacy
Germany Divided, 1949-1990
-Creation of West and East Germany
-according to Potsdam the Order-Neisse Line is created.
-West Germans dont recognize this =they want the land lost to Poland.
Who leads the Germans?
-Konrad Adenauer (W. Germany): commited anti-nazi and Christian democrat (GB adn France dont believe this)
-E. Germany: Walter Ulbricht: committed anti-nazi and communist
-both claim to be teh german voice and wont recognize each other.
the birth of NATO
-April 4, 1949 = Treaty of Washington
-article 51 cited
=creates NATO
-geographic extension (N. America, W. Germany, French Algeria, etc) = doesnt support imperialism
-political and economic cooperation
-collective security
USSR A-bomb
August 1949: USSR creates a successful A-bomb
-USSR now has a bomb to use against NATO members
the postwar world
big amount of world participation in WWII
-even if not in war, countries are heavily invested and involved in winning war
-1929 - great depression, ends when WWII beings
-meetings in the U.S. to discuss (allies) keeping world out of depression, @ Bretton Woods
The Bretton Woods Conference, July 1944
-resore international credit
-restore international trade
-prevent postwar depression
-integrate allied economies
-no trade barriers/loan barriers
-many delegates at conference
Bretton Woods and IGO's
-inter-governmental organization = broad organization that coordinates government
-international monetary fund (IMF) = short term bank, loans, credit checks
IGO's: World Bank
International Bank for Reconstruction and Develpment (World Bank) = designed to give long-term, low-interest loans to help reconstruct industry and helps worldwide
IGO's: International Labor Organization
Makes sure workers arent shafted
International Trade Organization = dedicated to ensuring world trade (no barriers, etc)
Gold standard
return to the gold standard, used to figure out transactions
-dollar as world's reserve currency = stable, as good as gold, US economy is good.
Notable Absences @ Bretton Woods
2 major industrial powers missing: Germany and Japan
=> War is still going on during 1944.
-allies must decide what to do w/ their economies/how to integrate them into the world economy.
What to do w/ Axis Powers: Morgenthau Plan
-Morgenthau Plan = make sure they dont have industry (made by US treasurer)
-no factories/no mining (iron and coal - tanks/weaponry)

-discussed at Yalta, Stalin likes.
Morgenthau Plan: Potsdam
US/GB seek to rehabilitate Germany (plan is rejected)
-> Europe needs German Industry, in order for economic recovery germany needs to be integrated/rehabilitated.
-world threat needs to be reduced so troops can go home
-Stalin = dont rehabilitate an aggressor, the USSR should be the 1st focus of recovery efforts
Cold War Economics, 1945-1946: Soviet response
-Because allies violate Yalta/Potsdam, the Soviet bloc refuses to participate in the ITO..
-Soviet bloc refuses to use dollar as world currency or adopt the gold standard because it would undermine his total control/needs to use own currency.
-USSR demand common economic policy toward germany (guaranteed under yalta and potsdam)
-demand reparations (get them from their own zone)
-ITO ceases to exist because USSR refuse participation
The Marshall Plan, June 1947
-offered credit for european purchases of US goods
-called for european eocnomic cooperation, opening of budge books for American inspection
-tacit promise: communism thrives on poverty and devastation
-the other half of the walnut (Truman doctrine)
-stalin doesnt want to integrate because its not total control
-Walnut: ideological argument, eliminate communist threat by reviving their economies
-aid to GB, Netherlands, Denmark, Yugoslavia, etc = resusitate principle power houses/military allies = GB, France, Italy, Germany
-1948 - 1952 = 4 year program that US gives $12.97 billion.
The Birth of GATT
general agreement on trade and tariffs
-signed in 1947, enacted Jan. 1, 1948
-ensure trade barriers dont go up
-encourage all countries to give "most-favored nation" status/principle to all.
GATT works by:
encouraging lowering trade barriers between all gatt members
- about 48 members
-designed to be short-term/temp
-revives and complicates trade
The Soviet Response: COMECON, Jan 1949
-council for mutual economic assistance (COMECON)
-founded in Moscow
-established Soviet counterpart to Western European integration
-no economic aid/laons
-1950: E. Germany joins
=> re-emphasizes cold war bloc
Jean Monnet and the Eureopean Union
-orchestrated interallied purchases during WWII
-favored collective economies
-advocated european political and econoimc integration as stipulated under the marshall plan
-GB and US deny this
-A "United States of Europe"
-Monnet wants this to happen in 48
Monnet's Dilemma: The German Vampire
-Konrad Adenaur (E.Germany), the threat never dies
-France fears Germany-they dont want another invasion.
-all of europe feels the same
-the need to remove the german threat
-1925 the need to integrate W. Germany's economy into W. Europe: resurrecting the dream of Arstide Briand pact (integrate countries so was is impossible).
Economic Integration: Phase 1/Schuman Plan
-the Schuman Plan, May 9, 1950
-integrate Western European coal and steel production
-response to COMECON
-international corporate trust
-reduces chance of unilateral rearmament
=countries dont control all of their steel production
The European Coal and Steel Community, April 18, 1951
-France, W. Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourge
-G.B doesnt join
GB doesnt join ECSC b/c
1) GB gets coal from US -regulate that
2) get coal from colonies
European Economic Integration: Phase 2 EEC
=European Economic Community (EEC)
-common market = extend to every fascet
-free trade and movement of capital and labor
-common tariff, agricultural, transportation and commercial policies
-coordination on economic labor and investment policies
-improve standard of living and collective GDP
-hints at a greater european union
=political, economic union
-belief that they will experience more prosperity
The Treaty of Rome, March 25, 1957
France, W. Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands
-create EURATOM (European Atomic Energy Community)
= organization to research atomic weaponry and to promote peacful use of a-energy.
-Britain declines membership again
Response to EEC: Britain
-Britain: creates teh European Free Trade Association on May 1950
-Britain, Norway, Sweden, Austria, Portugal, Switzerland and Denmark = free trade zone
-no common production, labor or investment policies
= problem = competition between member industries
The EEC expands
-1970s expansion
-Jan 1973: UK, Denmark and Ireland join
-GB tries to get in EEC = rejected
-Jan 1981 = greece joins
-jan 1986 = spain and portugal join
COMECON expands
-1968 = Mongolia joins
-1972 = Cuba
-1978 = Vietnam
A United States of Europe
-economic integration
-german reunification (oct 1990)
-end of cold war, COMECON 1991
-EEC composed of liberal, republican government = established conditions to be admitted to EEC
-EEC is talking about abolishing currency and making the EURO
-next: political integration
Treaty of Maastricht
Feb 7, 1992 = agrees to continue economic cooperation and begin political cooperations = European Union
The Division of Europe: NATO vs. the USSR
NATO alliance: common/capitalist economy, if ones attacked others will help, democratic elections

USSR: Russia and E. Europe, COMECON, if ones attacked others will help, common ideology = communism/totalitarianism
-W. Germany = exception in 1949
The "Gilded Alliance": Weaknesses in NATO
-covered with a thin layer of gold = not as valuable as treaty appears to be.
-mutual assistance not reflexive
-military disparity (175 USSR vs. 14 NATO)
-no common cohesive militiary alliance
-the American "nuclear umbrella" = shields NATO/W. Germany from 175 USSR divisions.
The Birth of MAD
-USSR successful atomic test July 14, 1949
-US learnes this August
-reduces moral power of American nuclear weaponry
-threat to W. Europe
*principle of mutually assured destruction = no one will use an a-bomb (MAD)
-comprimises US nuclear deterence
-USSR becomes a superpower too
The "loss" of China, Oct, 1949
-from 1946 to 1949 Civil War
-Shek/nationalist vs. Mao Zedong/Communist
-US cuts off aid to Shek because Mao is clearly winning
-Oct 1949, Mao wins
-Mongolia is forced to become communist (used to be pro-US)
-china going communist is huge (large # of people)
Truman's Dilemma Pt.1: Greece
Civil War in Greece
Truman's Dilemma Pt. 2: Communist bloc
Communist bloc is on the rise
-nuclear parity? USSR might achieve what the US achieved
-dont know USSR intentions
-time for a new foreign policy?
Paul Nitze and his NSC-68
Nitze = Director of Policy Planning for US State Dept..
-member of the National Security Counciol (NSC)
-chief architect of NSC memorandum #68, April 1950
NSC-68s worldview
-USSR aggressively expansionist
-containment failed (a-bomb, loss of china)
-need an aggressive response, not piecemeal measures
-restore W. Europe and Japan (new ally in Asia) to econoimc prominence
-rearm W. Europe = need military parity/superiority
-increase US atomic and conventional forces
*GOAL = rollback of communisms = territories that communism has taken need to be liberated.
NSC-68 Goals in Europe
-increase American conventional presence
-strategic air command (SAC) increased = bombing countries (deterence)
-fully integrated NATO (weapons, command structure) = not just a treaty, need the same guns
The Dilemma of NSC-68
-Expensive program. (12 bil to 48 bil to 60 bil in 2 years)
-Need congressional (Republican) approval (need approval from opp party)
-Economic recession = need people to spend more
-How justify increase (dilemma of Truman Doctrine)?
The Communists: "Peace Offensive"
-Feb. 1950: “offensive” launched by W. European parties.
-U.S. the aggressor.
-French, W. German, and Italian socialists favor a neutral Europe.
-Avoid destruction.
-Give Europe its independence.
Korea: the Cold War turns "hot"
-Parallels to Germany:
Divided peninsula.
Separate governments.
-Korean War: 2 Zones, N.Korea = USSR/Sung, S.Korea/US and Sing Mon Rhee
-both leaders think they're the leader of all of Korea
-Recent border clashes.
-June 1950: North Korea invades South Korea.
-progresses quickly and force US to partake so it doesnt fall to communism.
Korea: Implications for Europe
-Concerns over Soviet strike in Europe (W. Europe troops are helping the US in Korea)
-Impetus to improve NATO, unite armed forces (is this apart of the USSR scheme to dominate the world?)
-Dec. 19, 1950: NATO creates integrated command under Eisenhower = better NATO
-U.S. ground commitment now 6 divisions (Now 175: 18), improved from 4 to 6
The Lisbon Conference, Feb 1952
-need a serious deterent
-Lisbon, Portugal
-Increase NATO divisions to 50.
-NATO refines command structure at all levels.
-Political coordination.
-NATO now largely functional.
-“Containment” replaced with U.S.-led alliance (Nitzes vision came true)
NATO expansion: the dilemma
-Western European allies’ economies strained.
Economic recovery.
Imperial conflicts.
-1948-1955: U.S. troops defended West German territory.
-Sept. 1950: U.S. argues West Germany should contribute to its defense.
-needs an army to defend europe from communist threat
France: NO!
-A future German threat?
Echoes of Hitler.
-France’s Public Enemy #1: West Germany or the Soviet Union?
->The need to remove the German threat, and fully integrate Germany’s armed forces into Europe (a la the ECSC)
-French Foreign minister Robert Schuman
The Pleven Plan, 1950
-French Prime Minister Rene Pleven
-Sept. 12: U.S. proposed West German admission into NATO.
-Oct. 24: René Pleven proposed an integrated, “European” army.
-The “other half” (military) of the Schuman Plan (economic)
The genius of the Pleven Plan
-German troops without a German Army.
-German troops dispersed throughout Europe.
-at the battalion level.
-No German strategic forces or nuclear forces.
-European commander chosen by a European parliament
The European Defense Community (EDC)
-Signed May 27, 1952.
-Obtains U.S. approval.
-EDC under NATO.
-EDC efforts at unification.
Common uniform
Common leaders
Common political and judicial system.
Common budget.
-Difference: German troops organized at divisional, not battalion level.
-Greece and Turkey join NATO feb 1952 = can contribute troops
W. Germany's decision: to sign or not to sign?
-Not full military sovereignty.
-Would receive full political, economic sovereignty, if signed EDC.
-Would lessen concerns of a future German threat.
-Would end American, British, and French occupation of West Germany.
Regime Change: the U.S.
-January 20, 1953: Dwight D. Eisenhower replaces Harry S. Truman as U.S. President.
-Eisenhower advocates a “New Look” toward American foreign policy.
Eisenhowers Objectives
-Reduced spending.
-Balanced budget.
-Reduced conventional forces.
-Increased nuclear arsenal.
-“Massive retaliation”.
Dulles: Eisenhower's Enforcer
-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
-Manichean outlook (black vs. white)/(god vs. devil/US vs Soviet
-Aggressively combat communism.
-“Rollback” communism.
-Seek victory for the “free world”.
-Kept in check by Eisenhower -> wants reduced tension in the world
The Lynchpin of "massive retalliation" (Hbomb/Second Shift/Massive retal)
-need American nuclear superiority
-US has Hbomb December 1942, 100-1000x as powerful
-US has air force bases in europe
-Soviets get Hbomb Aug 1953
-US bombers a second shift option: conventional deterence - USSR invades W. Europe, US planes can go to USSR and drop bombs = Massive retaliation
-> this threat is so bad that Soviets will never cross the line.
A Setback for the EDC
August 30, 1954 = French assembly failed to radify the EDC
-edc appears on the brink of dissolution
-french see "thaw" in cold war = relations are improving
-Dulles: US will re-evaluate commitment to Europe
A Compromise Reached (WEU)
-Anthody Eden (UK foreign Secretary) proposed admitting W. Germany into the Brussels Pact
-Oct. 1954- Brussels pac tbecomes W. European Union (WEU) w/ admission of W. Germany and Italy
-U.S. and UK and France occupation of W. Germany ends
Regime Change: USSR
-March 5, 1953: Stalin
-No clear successor.
-Uncertain implications for Soviet foreign policy.
-What happens now?
Who suceeds Stalin?
-March 1953: world watches Stalin’s funeral.
-Ceremony might indicate who heads Soviet bloc.
-Safe money on Beria.
-Second bet: PM Bulganin.
-No one suspects Khrushchev.
Dulles: Eisenhower's enforcer
-Manichean outlook (black vs. white).
-“Rollback” communism.
-Seek victory for the “free world”.
The Lynchpin of "massive retaliation"
-American nuclear superiority.
-U.S. has H-Bomb (Dec. 1952).
-U.S. has air force bases in Europe.
-Soviets get H-Bomb (Aug. 1953)
-U.S. bombers a “second-strike” option.
-detering agression
An American Free from Reprisal
-from 1945 to 1955 USSR bombers can only make it to the mid-atlantic
-the US has air bases in europe
The Value of the EDC and a stronger NATO
-Would allow for W. German rearmament -> fewer US troops
-Would increase NATO conventional force.
-Could deter Soviet first strike, lessen need to use American deterrent.
After Stalin: An attempt at de-escalation: Panmunjom Armistice/Korean War
-not sure who will take over
-July 1953 - Panmunjom Armistice = USSR puts pressure on Korea to stop fighting
-Fighting in Korean war ends - no peace treaty but ends the fighting.
-contrasted with USSR repression of E. Berlin Revolt (July 1953) - riots about poor conditions in E. Berlin - USSR crush them.
After Stalin: An attempt at de-escalation- Indochina/Geneva Conference
1946-1954: France VS. Ho Chi Minh communist army = not going well
-July 1954: Geneva Conference = peace talks -> makes sure Indochina wont become completely communist
=US, USSR, France, Indochina re-establish borders.
-N. Communist
-S. Anti-Communist
=ends war 1946-1954
-Vietnam is temporarily partitioned
-eventual elections for unified govt.
A Setback for the EDC
-Aug. 30, 1954: French Assembly failed to ratify the EDC.
-EDC appears on brink of dissolution.
-French see “thaw” in Cold War.
-Dulles: U.S. will reevaluate commitment to Europe.
A Compromise Reached (Eden/WEU)
-Anthony Eden (UK Foreign Secretary), proposes admitting W. Germany into Brussels Pact.
-Oct. 1954: Brussels Pact becomes Western European Union (WEU) with admission of W. Germany and Italy.
-U.S., U.K, and French occupation of W. Germany ends.
Mixed Signals: the Warsaw Pact
-May 14, 1955, form their own version of NATO
-Reaction to W. German inclusion?
-Replaced “bilateral agreements”.
-Collective Security/ Article 51 of the U.N.
- Open to all (not really)
Mixed Signals: Austrian Free State Treaty
-Vienna, Austria under Allied military occupation.
-March 15, 1955: Austrian Free State Treaty ends occupation.
-Austria neutral, cannot reunite with Germany.
-Austria nonaligned
occupation leaves and austria can form sovereign state under 2 conditions: 1) always neutral, 2) cant reunite w/ germany
1955: Mixed Signals Continued: USSR trying to make peace?
-USSR returns Porkhala naval base to Finland.
-USSR returns Port Arthur to China.
-USSR restores relations with Yugoslavia.
-USSR seeks relations with W. Germany.
The Geneva Conference, July 18-21, 1955
-Four-power talks (US, UK, France, and USSR).
-Discuss European issues stemming from WWII.
-Vague discussion about German reunification.
Open Skies and Disarmament
-Open flights over American, Soviet territory.
-Blueprint exchanges of all bases.
-Bulganin: Superpowers disarm nukes, limit conventional forces.
-Eisenhower presents this to USSR (Bulganin)
-> seem to agree until Kruschev disagrees
-Bulganin turns it down -> Eisenhower now knows Krushchev is calling the shots on foreign affairs
The Consequences of Geneva
-No concrete settlement (“open skies”, disarmament, German unification).
-Improved rhetoric, communication.
-Eisenhower learns who is in charge of Soviet Union (Khrushchev)
-Dulles later ruins “spirit of Geneva” (Oct. 1955 meeting).
the Global View: USSR global Expansion
-June 1955: Signs accord with India for technical and economic aid.
-Nov. 1955: Khrushchev tours Southern Asia.
-Lenin: Imperialism is the last stage of capitalism (1917).
-Seek allies among former colonies in Asia and Africa ->help old-colonies b/c imperialism is capitalism
...Or a defensive response?
-USSR argue its defensive
-Sept. 1954: SEATO created = US made to protect S. Vietnam
-1955: CENTO created= defensive for Iran, Iraq, Pakistan/Middle East
-Both Modeled on NATO.
-Offer technological, military aid for anti-Soviet stance.
-USSR thinks US is trying to surround it w/ hostile states -> not being aggressive, just responding to military alliances.
Krushchev and "De-stalinization"
-20th Party Congress (Feb. 1956).
-Keynote speech: “peaceful co-existence” = return to Leninist doctrine of peacful coexistance between Communist and Capitalist world (USSR is modifying tone)
-Secret speech: de-Stalinization (11 days later) = very private = denounces Stalin's reign of terror, foreign policy, efforts to topple Tito.
-somebody passes him a note and he responds that he didnt do anything because he was too afraid, just as this person was too afriad to ask in person
-Leaked to West ->Appeared to support “alternate paths to socialism.”
-April 1956: Cominform dissolved.
-given in private because all leaders in E. Europe use Stalin's methods -> wants to give them notice in advance
-he's serious about ending Stalin's rule
The Polish Response
-June 1956: Polish workers riot for better labor conditions in Poznan.
-Oct.: Worker riots throughout Poland.
-Polish politburo supports rehabilitation of Wladyslaw Gomulka -> look at Krushchev's denunciation of Stalin.
-Oct. 19: Gomulka elected First Secretary of Polish Communist Party -> he used to disagree w/ Stalin, follow his own path
Krushchev Intervenes
-Oct. 20: Khrushchev flies to Warsaw, assure Gomulka ‘s loyalty.
-Soviet tanks move toward border (doesnt like being criticized)
-Gomulka arms workers.
-Khrushchev caves in.
-Gomulka eases restrictions on civil liberties.
-Soviet military presence declines.
-Still member of Warsaw Pact.
The Hungarian Response
-Oct.: Hungarian workers, students protest economic conditions.
-Imre Nagy made Premier.
-Nagy introduces liberal reforms, non-communist members, into govt.
-Oct. 30: Soviet troops leave Hungary -> same thing as Poland, as long as USSR is not threatened, procede
The Hungarian Empire
-Nov 1, 1956 = Hungary will have free elctions, no more communism - Hungary will leave Warsaw Pact
-appears to be a peacful rollback - good for capitalists
-nightmare for Kruschev = non-aligned Hungary is near USSR border
The Hungarian Empire: USSR response
-Nov. 4: 250,000 troops, 5,000 tanks return, overthrow govt.
-Hungary calls for American aid, cites pledges of Radio Free Europe = dont do this b/c of idea of massive retaliation on europe.
-World distracted with simultaneous crisis in the Suez.
-Krushchev topples Hungarians
An Arms race beings
-1955: Soviets develop long-range bomber that can reach US
-Aug. 26, 1957: Soviets develop ICBM - missile from USSR to US
-Oct. 4, 1957: Soviets launch Sputnik.
-Dec. 1957: U.S. develops ICBM.
-Feb. 1958: U.S. launches Explorer.
-Fall 1958: U.S., U.K., and U.S.S.R. agree to halt nuclear tests (de-escalation?).
Berlin and the Cold War
-Still divided.
-“Soviet ulcer”
-Showcase for W. European economic recovery.
-Still under Allied occupation.
-Nov. 1958: Khrushchev demanded all powers evacuate Berlin.
=Goal: Weaken U.S. relations with W. Germany, NATO allies.
-1959: Khrushchev forced to back down.
American Foreign Policy
Dulles dies of cancer, May 24, 1959.
An end to “rollback”?
A “second thaw” in superpower relations?
An end to “massive retaliation”?
Nuclear De-escalation
-U.S. is augmenting air force in europe
-July 1959: Greece, Italy, and UK accept U.S. MRBMs on their territory.
-Aug. 3, 1959: Geneva Conference: U.S., USSR will exchange state visits.
-Oct. 1959: Turkey accepts MRBMs.
Krushchev to the US
-Sept. 16-27, 1959: Visited Washington, NYC, LA, SF, and Des Moines.
-Met with Eisenhower at Camp David.
-no disneyland for krushchev
The U-2 plane spying crisis
-Flights ongoing since 1956.
-Photographed Soviet bases, research facilities.
-USSR knew of flights since 1956.
-Flew higher than Soviet ground-to-air, fighters could reach.
Francis Gary Powers makes history
-May 5: U-2 plane goes down over USSR.
-US cover story: weather recon plane.
-Think pilot committed suicide, photograph gear destroyed.
-Soviets present Powers to media.
-Eisenhower admits personal responsibility for flights, recalls Pearl Harbor.
-Soviets demand personal apology, or will refuse to attend summit.
Factors in Kruschev's Policies
-Soviet hardliners (Germany, Europe)/critics
-Sino-Soviet tensions (china wants war)
-Wait out U.S. elections, then deal with new U.S. president.
Partition Promised: the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, 1915-1916
-Husseins family fights Ottoman Overlords
-Britain supports post-war creation of an arabic state: vague on boundaries, status of the holy land (Jerusalem and Bethleham)
Partition Promised #2: the Balfour Declaration
-Nov. 2, 1917
-Britain supports a "national home" for Jewish people in Palestine
-consideration must be given for indigenous arab populations
-> conflict b/c arabs are promised the same region.
A Failure to Reconcile Promises
-Prince Faisal goes to PP assisted by T.E. Lawrence
-Weizman does too
-Faisal and Weizmann attempt to reach compromise on future Palestinean state, but fail.
-preparation for self-government as mandates of teh League of Nations
-borders drawn @ Cairo Conference (1921)
-Britain receives Palestine
the Creation of Palestine: preparation for independence/clashes
1922-1947 no effort to prepare people for independence
-1922-1947 - repeated clashes between arab and jewish populations
-no effort to create a kingdom or prepare independence in Palestine - viewed as a British colony
Pro-British Puppet leaders
Prince Faisal in Iraq
Prince Abdullah in Jordan
B/c of Balfour
Zionists get a national home in Palestine - very unclear
=> lots of criticism of Britain, no one is getting what they want
-arabs and jews get angrier and angrier at each other.
Re-thinking Palestine: Suez Canal/Solution for unrest
-1936: War appears more likely in Europe. Britain seek to assure the "lifeline" via the Suez Canal by stabilizing Palestine.
-British govt. seeks solution taht resolves civil unrest between jews and arabs
The Peel Commission (1936)
-headed by Lord Robert Peel
-interviews Leaders in Jewish and Arab communities
-Proposes partition of Palestine: Arabs get 2/3, Jews get 1/3, British control holy cities, calls for orderly transfer of arabs and jews to respective lands
= Arabs reject it, Jewish settlers are split.
--> Never happens and GB forgets about it b/c of WWII
WWII and Palestine
1939: British need to secure the Middle East (for oil and lifeline)
-Germany is going to invade Poland
-Need to resolve issue of Palestine avoid Arabs receiving encouragement from Hitler
WWII and Palestine: White Paper Policy
-Jews and Arabs unhappy (immigration cap placed on, still a mandate)
=> fails because it doesnt supply immediate statehood
both groups unhappy
The Legacy of the Holocaust
-end of WWII: allied (Western) public becomes aware of Holocaust
-European Jewish populations increasingly concerned for future safety
-increasingly look to emigration (to US and Palestine) for safer future
-Problem = quotas in both areas (both filled)
Independence by Guerilla Warfare: Begin Irgun and Gurion Haganah
-est 1931, and 1920
-wage guerilla warfare campaign against British
-attack british (mandate) govt buildings, employers and troops
=goal = throw in towel and hand territory to Jews
-not sucessful
-Irgun more militant of the 2
-obtain independent Jewish State
-Britain was busy w/ the War
Terrorist Tactics: British Response/Terrorist Response
-June 1946: British crackdown, arrest several Haganah and Irgun members -> striking back
-July 22, 1946: Bombing of the King David Hotel, HQ of British police in Palestine.
-Orchestrated by Irgun as retaliation for British raid.
91 dead (including 41 Arab and 17 Jewish citizens), 45 injured.
=> GB believes Irgun is a terrorist group
- Haganah also begin to intensify efforst against GB for an independent state
The Saga of The Exodus
-July 11, 1947: Left France for Palestine, with 4,500 passengers.
-Symbolic value: Holocaust survivors, Biblical name.
-British intercepted it, forced passengers to leave Exodus.
-Covered by media.
->Immigration quota from 1939 White Paper still in effect (zero emigration in 1947).
British Bankruptcy?
Keynes, Bevin concerned about British finances (aid to Greece, Turkey).
-Need to reduce costs, end imperial rule.
->Solution for Palestine: hand issue over to U.N. (successor of League)
UN resolution 181
-Nov. 29, 1947.
-Established partition of Palestine into a Palestinian Arab state and an Israeli state
-33 for, 13 against, 10 obstain
=> 13 against are all states in middle east surrounding that area.
The Partition of the Mandate
53% of the land to Israel.
47% of the land to Palestine.
Jewish population in 1946: 34%
Arabic population in 1946: 66%
-Jewish population in the majority in planned Israeli state = arabs disagree
-Jerusalem remains under UN control = keep holy cities under int. control
-UK Mandate expired on May 15, 1948 = arabic and jewish state will be made on that day -> everyone expects a peaceful transfer
=> Surprise = both anti-communist and communist countries vote in favor of partition
The Soviets Vote
-Stalin a known anti-Semite.
-USSR confronted by anti-Communist states in the Middle East = your enemy is my friend.
-Haganah, Irgun were quasi-socialist.
-Future client state? common enemy.
-Card in future purge of Jews from USSR?
The American Vote
-Concerns about 1948 presidential election - Truman needs Jewish democratic vote.
-Guilt over U.S. handling of S.S. St. Louis (1939), Holocaust = sent a boatload of jews away.
-Concern over European Jewish refugee problem if no homeland created in Palestine
= in favor for split
Countdown to May 15
-Guerrilla raids launched by Jewish and Arabic paramilitary groups.
-Arabic states begin to meet, plan war upon withdrawal of British Mandate.
-Israeli guerrilla groups begin to organize, plan for political future.
-No equal planning among Palestinian Arabic groups = no coordination on territory.