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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
relative gains
states compare their gains with those of other states when making decisions about security
the bretton woods system
1944 countries agreed to fix the currency at a certain value (the dollar). US promised to back the currency with gold at $35 an ounce. Exchange rates were anchored to a dollar-gold standard. Resulted in a very stable and unchanging exchange rate.
Gatt (general agreement on tariffs and trade)
interim agreement signed in 1947 in the expectation that it would be superseded by an international trade organization
the IMF (international monetary fund)
established in 1945 to create and ensure a stable exchange rate regime and the provision of emergency assistance to countries facing a temporary crisis in their balance of payments regime (promote international monetary cooperation and resolve inter-war economic problems)
the world bank (originally called the international bank for reconstruction and development)
created to facilitate private investment and reconstruction in europe
the group of 7 (now G-8)
(US, japan, Germany, UK, France, Italy, Canada) industrialized countries began discussing monetary issues amongst themselves with the collapse of the Bretton Woods system
trade negotiations produced a new world trade organization in the 1980s.
article 42
UN security council article that declares the right to use force
artcle 41
UN security council article that declares economic sanctions
article 33
UN security councol article that determines the existence of threats to peace
jus in bello
laws of war - governing the conduct of war once launched (ex. targeting civilians, political prisoners)
jus ad bellum
laws of declaring war- when it is legally permitted to wage war
(ex. peace enforcement by UN forces, self defense)
Pacta sunt servanda
states must observe treaties that they have signed
customary international law
wide range of rules binding upon states
liberalism IPE
free markets, free trade, free movement of capital, benefit from comparative advantage, invisible hand
mercantilism IPE
share presumptions of realists, world economy is an arena of competition among states, each state will do what it can to survive
marxism IPE
world economic relations are best conceived as a class struggle between oppressors (means of production) and the oppressed (working class)
UNDP Human Development index
1990- measures nations development based on life expectancy, education and purchasing power
elements of regimes
norms,principles, rules, and decision making procedures
categories of regimes
economic, environmental, security, communication
principle organs of the UN
security council, secratariat, general assembly, economic and social council, trusteeship council, international court of justice
stockholm conference
1972 - UN conference on human environment - first international conference on the environment - established UNEP and earthwatch
montreal protocol
1987 - set standards for regulation of ozone and cfc's
kyoto protocol
1997 - mandate the redution of greenhouse gases in the developed world (US never signed)
Agenda 21
non binding and set up a program of action of sustainable development
liberalism - considers all organized groups as being potential political actors, transnational actors, or intergovernmental organizations
formation of the EU
treaty of Rome 1957 - set up EEC (European Economic union - FTA)
Single Europe act - 1985 - set up common market
treaty of maastricht (1992) - set up monetary union and changed the name to EU
levels of european integration
free trade area, customs union, common market, economic and monetary union
comprehensive test ban treaty
1996 - outlaws testing of nuclear weapons, not legal but people follow
Strategic arms reduction talks
reduce US and USSR nuclear arsenals
intermediate nuclear forces
1987 - eliminate intermediate range nuclear weapons of europe
missile technology control regime
1987 - control transfer of ballistic missile technology to limit risks of proliferation
strategic arms limitation talks
limits US and USSR nuclear arsenals
non proliferation treaty
1968/1995 - control the spread of nuclear weapons, prohibit NWS from helping other states acquire nuclear capabilities
groups like the EU
NAFTA - North American free trade agreement
ASEAN - association of southeast asian states
AU - African Union
APEC - Asia Pacific economic cooperation
MERCOSUR - Common markets of the south
global society
at the beginning of the 21st century the process of globalization has accelerated to the point where the clear outlines of global society are now evident
system operating in the absence of norms or rules
purposes of the UN
maintain international peace and security
develop friendly relations among nations
solve economic,social,cultural,humanitarian problems
branches of international law
humanitarian, criminal, diplomatic, law of the sea
principles of the UN
sovereign equality of all members
states shall refrain from using or threatening force
the UN cant intervene in states
civil society
everything outside of states arena, govt action
(ex. social movements, NGOs, businesses, CBOs, media)
why states form IGOs
foster communication
legitimize state action (rarely will states do anything without consent)
act as neutrals
UNCED (UN conference on environment and development)
1992 - rio declaration, agenda 21, FCCC (framework convention on climate change), kyoto protocol