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34 Cards in this Set

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What 4 events lead to the formation of the sovereign state?
1. Spiritual Change (reformation)
2. Improved military technology
3. New forms of economics
4. Nationalism
Describe the feudal system before.
Independent regions ruled by an aristocrat who paid allegiance to a higher power
Define universalism and parochialism and how did they play a role in the pre-Westphalian world?
Universalism: Pope had almost universal rule over Europe. Every monarch, etc. acknowledged the church
Parochialism: Individual regions. Basis of the feudal system.
What role did the Reformation play in the emergence of the state?
The Reformation indicated the end of Universalism since the Protestant revolution of Martin Luther destroyed the Catholic church's monopoly. This lead to the 30 Years War and tore Europe into two opposing sides.
How did new military technologies lead to the emergence of the state?
Gun powder and cannons finally allowed kings to silence domestic rebellion. In the past, the ruler of the region could hide behind fortress walls. Now they had to obey the king or risk death. It lead to a tightly organized bureaucratic state and a central government.
How did economics fuel the emergence of the state?
At this time both capitalism and imperialism became major driving forces in the formation of the state. In order to participate in capitalism, one needed wealth in resources. This was done by having tight control over the ruling area as well as expanding into new regions. However, to partake in imperialism, the state needed to be unified so the ruler could gather necessary resources, etc. Lead the Mercantilism.
What is Mercantilism and how did it play a role in European economics?
Mercantilism (17th to 18th) lead to tight controls of imports/exports and paved the way for capitalism (who made what best, etc.). The Zero Sum Gain emerges (try to export as much as possible) and begins the Multipolar era with Balance of Power Theory.
What is the Balance of Power Theory?
The need to prevent any one state to achieve hegemony by allying with others.
What role did Nationalism play and what event lead to it?
French Revolution: King Louie the 14th declared "I am the state." Liberty, Equality and Fraternity and the idea that the land belongs to the people, who are connected by a common language, history, etc. Both Napoleon and the printing press heightened this sense of unity.
What role did Napoleon play in nationalism?
"Leve'e en Mass" If it's your country, then you should fight for it--creating an even larger sense of devotion and pride in one's homeland.
What lead to WWI?
In the past the 5 powers of Europe (Britain, Russia, Astro-Hungarian, France and Prussia) were constantly shifting alliances to maintain Balance of Power. By the 20th century, 2 rigid alliances form. Triple Ententz (france, russia, and GB) vs Central Powers (Germany, Austo-hung, turkey)
What were the effects of WWI?
1. End of 3 empires/countries. Austro-hungarian, Ottoman, and Russia (revolution)
2. Great Powers exhausted--created a power vacuum. Didn't pay attention to rise of dictators since had own problems to worry about
3. Treaty of Versailles. Large "unjust" war debts that fueled revenge.
What were the effects of WWII?
Created another power vacuum, this time USA steps in and becomes a dominate player.
Describe the Cold War.
Cold War was a fight between 2 super powers creating a Bipolar World. It used the East/West dichotomy as well as the North/South during proxy wars. Mutually assured destruction also changed the way of warfare, leading to Asymmetrical Wars rather than those of the past.
How is System Level Analysis categorized?
By number of poles (centers of power that are significant enough to play a role in IR).
Multipolar, Bipolar, Unipolar.
What are the Natural Rules of a Multipolar system? (4)
1. Increase power by negitiation rather than war
2. Better to fight than fail to maintain/increase power
3.Do not fight to destroy the enemy (may need their help later)
4. Oppose any actor/alliance of actors that threaten to upset balance of power (join weakest since strongest may turn against you)
What are the Rule of a Bipolar system? (5)
1. Try to eliminate the enemy
2. Fight to achieve #1 but not if the risk outweighs the benefit
3. Increase power at other's expense
4. Try to increase you # of allies while taking away from enemies (Zero Sum)
5. Neutral states act as "go-between" (Finlandization)
What are the characteristics associated with State Level Analysis?
Focused on economic and ideological orientation, which will define the actions of the state.
What makes a state a state?
1. Sovereignty
2. Territorial Expression
3. Diplomatic Recognition
4. Functional Government
5. Some form of Internal Loyality
What influences the state?
1. Political System
2. Subnationals
3. Natural of the Situtation
What are subnationals? (5)
Executives, bureaucracies, legislatures, public opinion and media
What roles do executives play?
Have lots of influence is foreign policy
1. have more access to info
2. One Voice better than many
3. Covert action (the less who know the better)
What are bureaucracies, what role do they play and what dangers are associated with them?
Bureaucracies are appointed bodies that play an important role in the execution of foreign policy.
They are very good at gathering and feeding information to the executive level.
Since they are not elected, they can be very hard to control. The Bureaucratic Pathology also demonstrates how information is passed on a vertical level, and not horizontal. This is bad since very little communication is done btw sectors. They are also very good at distorting information to influence policy makers.
What role/limitations do legislatures have?
They have the ability to deny/approve funding, even to the executive.
They are limited by the large number of people involved which limits ability to act swiftly, to keep secrecy, and act as One Voice. They also have limited information compared to bureaucracies and executives.
How does the political system affect state level analysis?
They type of ideology and economic focus will affect the actions/policies a state makes. The # of opinions vs participants will also determine the influence of subnationals.
How does the Nature of the Situation affect state's actions?
Crisis: downplays the influence of subnationals since typically calls for quick action. These actions are influenced by preconceived notions or whether there is a precedent case.
New Policy Direction: A complete change in world order. Much more time to discuss/debate what new policies should be.
Why do realists often reject the Individual Level Analysis?
Nigh: individual's actions are governed by the anarchical system.
Human nature does not ive enough insight to causes of war (bad person doesn't go to war while good person does)
What factors are involved in Individual Level Analysis?
1. Physical and Mental Ability
2. Decision Making
What influences a person's decision making ability?
1. Group Think
2. Political Rivalry
3. Response to Domestic Pressure/Accommodate, Isolate or Oppress Opposition to maintain legitimacy.
4. Perceptional Screens (ignoring info b/c doesn't want to believe it. Pearl Harbor)
5. Cognitive Bias (wishful thinking/thinking you did right when you really didn't)
6. Lessons from the Past (personal events in past influence current behavior)
What are the steps in the Rational Model?
1. Set Goals
2. Evaluate importance of goals
3. Calculate costs/benefits
4. Choose one w/ highest benefits and lowest costs.
What are the 3 World Views/Lessons in the history of the US?
1. Isolationism: based on myth that God guided settlers away from corruption of Europe. Good way to stay out of wars
2. Munich-Pearl Harbor: Appeasement doesn't work. End of Isolationism (Pearl H.). US takes an assertive role is Containment/"World Police"
3. Vietnam: Choose wars carefully. Can't always be the police. If you do fight, go all out from the beginning.
What is the Tripolar Configuration?
Each player will try/prevent cooperation btw other two players
What are the 4 models of Tripolar?
1st: all 3 are friendly (trois)
2nd: 1 is friendly with other 2, but the other 2 aren't (romantic)
3rd: 2 are friendly w/ odd man out (marriage-US and China vs USSR)
4th: all hostile to each other (unit veto)
What are the characteristics of a Unipolar world?
1. The power mediates disagreements btw other less powers
2. Punish any violation of accepted code of conduct
3. Dominate as many military and economic factors as possible
4. As little autonomy as possible