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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Conflict
A difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation.
Settlement
Ultimate outcome of bargaining
Two Types of Conflict
Tangible and Intangible
Most pervasive kind of conflict
Economic Conflict
Tangible Conflict
(interests)
Economic
Territorial
Control of Gov't
Intangible Conflicts
(Ideas-Ones identity)
Ethnic
Religious
Idealogical
realist view on why war breaks out
Choice to go to war is normal and reflects rational decisions of national leaders: They can achieve more by going to war then by being peaceful. Calculated
Opposing realist view
It is not rational to go to war political leaders deviate from rationality when deciding to do so. Reasons for this are Cognitive Bias, Group think, informations screens...
Liberalist point of view on international conflict
focus on diplomacy an win win benefits to solve... not all conflict is resolved by violence
deterrence
Build up military and threaten to stop war
Cycle theories
War comes about in waves because of economic tendencies (50 years)
War is 100 year cycle based on decay and creation of world order.

At best these theories only explain general tendencies toward war in the international system over time.
Linear Long term change
War is becoming increasingly unlikely because of globalisation (End of History)
War Distasteful
Beacuse of international norms war is becoming much like slavery or dueling; once accepted now obsolete.
economic COnflict
most pervasive, in a global capitalist market, all economic exchanges involve some conflict of interest.
Don't usually lead to war
Theory of Lateral pressure
economic grth of sts leads to geographic expansion as they seek natural resources beyond their borders. Connects t economic competition to inernational security
Drug Trafficking
illegal trade across international borders, smuggling, which deprives states of revenue and violates states legal control of their borders.

IE. cocaine cartels in columbia
Territorial disputes
Territory valued more passionately then any other aspect of state.

The cost of most territorial disputes appear to outweigh any economic benefits that the territory in question could provide. IE Peru and ecuador moutainous region worth nothing, Okinotori(reef), spratly islands
Irredentism
Attempting to regain territory lost to another state.
view of Territory after WW2
GOv'ts come and go but borders remain.
secession
rarely succeeds, wars can be large and deadly and almost are never won by the secessor. spillover.
Ethnic cleansing
IE) serbs killing non-serbs in croatia and bosnia after yugoslavia was broken up.
Territorial Waters
no universal law but a norm is within three miles off shore are considered territory but sovereignty comes into question. UNCLOS generally allows 12 mile limit for shipping rights and 200 mile exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covering fishing and mineral rights (but allowing free-navigation by all) conflicts IE gulf of sidra
Airspace
Any airspace above territory. state permission is needed to fly over another territories.
outer space is considered international territory like the oceans.
COntrol of government
in theory states don't interfere with eachother because of soveriegnty yet in actuality states use a variety of means of leverage to influence gov'ts in their favor. very likely to lead to violence
Conflicts of Ideas (intangible)
ethnic, religion, idealogical
ethnic conflict
Ethnic group- groups of people who share ancestral, language, cultural, or religious ties and a common identity.

stems from One group thinks has a hatred for another
Ethnocentrism
(in-group bias) is tendency to see one;s own group in favorable and an out-group in unfavorable terms. creates self reinforcing process of ethnic devision reverse happens for outgroup
Dehumanized
stripped of all human rights
religious conflict
often the most central and visible division between groups.
this happens because of the core values of religion
Fundamentalist movements
Challenge the practices of secular political organizations
Idealogical conflict
much like relgious it symbolizes and intesifies conflicts between groups and state more then it causes them.
revolution
short term they do change international relations, they make wars more likely, but not because of idealogies because of quickly changed governments alter alliances and change balance of powers.
hegemonic war
war over control of the entire world order--the rule of the international system as a whole,
AKA--World War, general war, or systematic war.

Probably won't occur again unless civilization is wiped out.
Total War
One state wants to conquer and occupy the another. Reach capital city and force surrender of gov't.

IE)2003 Iraq war
Limited War
military action to obtain some ends short of capital surrender and complete dominion.
IE) raids
Civil War
War between factions within a state trying to create or prevent new gov't...
Guerrilla War
Warfare without front lines. often in the midst of civilians cities.
counterinsurgency
an effort to combat guerrilla warfare by winning over the hearts and minds of the civillians sheltering the geurrillas.
Terrorism
refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
State Sponsored terrorism
refers to the use of terrorst groups by states--usually under control of the states intelligence agency--to achieve political aims.
World Order
Self-interested yet realize through regulations and rules can get great gains. Avoiding costly outcome when cooperation breaks down and force takes over.
International Anarchy
doesn't mean no rules, order, structure simply means that states surrender soveriegnty to no one.
International norms
expectations held by state leaders about normal international relations. closely related to moral norms/morality.

IE) iraq invades kuwait=Immoral against international norm.
Habitually legitimate
norms are gain favor over time because they are seen as legitimate and become habitual
IO
International organizations- IGO such as UN and NGO such as international committee of the red cross.

The growth of these organizations speaks strongly for interdependency.
UN system
closest thing to a world gov't that has ever existed yet isn't quite. It acknowledges that states are unwilling to give up their soveriegnty.
UN Charter
based on the notion that states are equal under international law, state have full sovereignty over their own affairs, states should have full independence and territorial integrity, and that states should carry out international obligations.
UN as a
Mechanism for conflict resolution
Forum to talk about their disputes
symbol of international order and global indentity
UN General Assembly
all states present
UN security council
five great powers and ten rotating member states make decisions about international peace and security.

Define threat, structure response and enforce its decisions.
UN secretariat
Executive Branch led by secretary general of the UN
Sources of International Law
Treaties, custom, general principles of law (such as equity), legal scholarships (including past judicial decisions).
Treaties
most important source. If signed and ratified then must be observed (pacta sunt servanda). IE) UN charter
Custom
If states behave in a certain way towards each other for a long time their behavior is considered an unwritten law which both are expected to follow. Tends to be positivist, draws on actual customs, the practical realities of self-interest and the need for consent.
General principles of Law
IE) theft and assualt in most legal systems are seen as breaking the law. this is easy to see.
legal scholarship
lowest form of international law and only the very highest select scholars are able to preside or even give evidence in a case.
Enforcement
Depends heavily on reciprocity (tit for tat)
Sanctions (become a pariah)
reprisals
World Court
branch of UN, 15 judges, not used widely.
international cases in national courts
US gives bigger settlements and most organizations trade or have soemthing to do with US.
Diplomatic Recognition
Embassy rights diplomats are accredited to each others gov'ts.
Diplomatic Immunity
Even when they leave embassy grounds. beyond jursidiction of the host countries courts.
Amnesty international
Watches over international human rights without showing partiality.
Extradition
A legal treaty arrangement between states that allows a state to ask a second state to arrest and return a suspected criminal to the first state
pariah
A sanctioned state that becomes cut off from the world community is a
Chemical weapons
Agents which disrupt the functions of the human body, killing or paralyzing enemy troops or populations
Biological
are toxic substances that can create diseases and epidemics when launched against enemy troops or populations.
National Security Agency
believed to have the most powerful computer facility in the world
Four Functions of Force
Defense, deterrence, Compellence, and Swaggering
Swaggering
FLaunting their forceful muscles, Nuke tests, air shows, want to intimidate others
Compellence
Drive someone to change behavior
Iraq in kuwait and bush's "this will not stand" if this can be done it can also defend and deterr
Defend
the ability to withstand invasions, doesn't mean in can deter or compel. very expensive
Deterrence
Prevent a future action by another state.
IE)cold war arms race both sides tried to deter.