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28 Cards in this Set

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What are Stanley Hoffman's three criteria for change and continuity?
1) What are the systems basic units?
2) What are the policy goals of the primary units, in relation to one another?
3) What are the capabilities of the units?
What are the 3 types of analysis?
1) Normative - analysis of values held by a society; how things should be
2) Empirical - to attach ovservable events within a theoritical frame work, use these observations as evidence for historical & statistical analysis.
3) Policy - find the best way to achieve your goal.
What are the Levels of analysis?
1) Systemic - global actors & patters of interaction.
2) State - government type & what takes place in it.
3) Individual - leaders & citizens
Concept of sovereignty - four parts:
1 - State is the highest authority for its people.
2 - State has the right to manage its own affairs, without outside interferance.
3 - State may not recognize any outside authority it does not want to recognize.
4 - Each state has the same international status as any other state.
Defining characters of a state:
1 - Governing aperatus
2 - population
3 - defined borders
4 - military
What are Stanley Hoffman's three criteria for change and continuity?
1) What are the systems basic units?
2) What are the policy goals of the primary units, in relation to one another?
3) What are the capabilities of the units?
Defining characters of a state:
1 - Governing aperatus
2 - population
3 - defined borders
4 - military
Concepts of nation & nation-state
Nation - a group of peeople who identify themselves as a group based on ethnicity, linquist, & culture - eskimo's

Nation-State - state taht has managed to maintain a group of people who identify themselves with the state within they live - Ireland or Japan.
Concept of foreign policy
Output of states in the international system consisting of a set of decesions made by governing authorities to realize a states international goals.
4 categories of Foreign Policy Decesion Making:
1 - Core-objectives - must be achieved at all times
2 - Long-range objectives - states role in the international system
3 - Middle-range objectives - economic development & social goods
4 - Short-range objectives - crisis management; 9/11
Determinants of foreign policy: a level of analysis approach.
Systemic Level
Geo-politics - where a state is located & its physical terrain.
Polarity of the system - concentration of power in the international system.

State Level
Military capabilities
Level of economic development
Type of gov't - demo. vs. autocracy; demo is not effiencent in F.P.
Militancy of state religion

Individual Level
What type of leader it is
Rational Actor Model
Ideal type, views the state as a unitary rational actor.
1 - clarify its goals
2 - order these goals in importantance
3 - examine all releveant alternatives to achieve these goals
4 - examine consequences
5 - compare these consequences with alternatives
6 - decision making policy that closely matches your objective
7 - moniter & evaluate the outcomes
Bounded Rationality Model
Reflextion of the human condition
1 - Cognative dissonance denying any discrepencies between your beliefs & new information
2 - Policy agenda's - own self interests & objectives

Satisfice - to search for acceptable choice based on minimum set requirements rather than the optimal choice (settling)
Instrumental Rationality Model
An individual has preferences & when they are faced with 2 or more choices, they will pick the one that best meets their objectives.
Expected utility Theory
Expect individuals to be rational & is expected to know the utility of a preference & multiply it by the probability that, the preference can actually happen.
Bureacratic Politics of decision-making
1 - provide information/multiple view points & alternatives.
2 - help to carry out policy
A-Organizational Process - looks at past precedents; actions are best understood by comparission
B-Governmental Process - political aspects --> compromising
Presidential Doctrines
--Truman (Greece)- Support free people who are resisting armed minorities or outside pressure.
--Eisenhower (Suez Crisis)- Middle East is vital to US national security
--Johnson (Cuba)- Don't allow communist government in the Western Hemisphere.
--Nixon (Vietnam)- US allies should bear a greater share of the burden for their own defense.
--Carter (Iran)-Protect its interests in the Persian Gulf.
--Reagan (Afghanistan&Nigeragu)- support for anticommunist insurgents who try to overthrow Soviet support gov'ts
--Clinton (Democratic Peace Thesis)- Seek the enlargement of peaceful liberal community of democratic states
--Bush (Sept. 11)-States that harbor terrorists are just as guility and use its power to penalize the guilty.
Three stimuli for IO's
1 - Universal concern for the condition of humanity
2 - Big Power peace keeping concerns
3 - Functional cooperation.
Three stimuli for IO's
1 - Universal concern for the condition of humanity
2 - Big Power peace keeping concerns
3 - Functional cooperation.
Why the rapid growth for IO's
-Increased interdependence
-Increased recognition transnational problems
-Increased recognition that states alone can not handle these problems
-Increased number of transnational political movements
- the learning cuve - we have problems we need to adress them
Types of functions of IO's
1 - Interactive arena
2 - Functional cooperation
- spill-over effect --> they come for one issue & see that you are efficient & effective; then they hope to help other areas
3 - Comprehensive cooperation
- then there is a push for political cooperation
4 - Act as an independant actor in the international system.
Non-state actors: definition & defining characteristics.
Transnational that join together to work on a common goal
Not states; but volunteers from states.

Religious Movements
Terrorist Groups
Multi-National Coporations
5 types of international activites pursued by militant religious and nationalist movements:
1 - irredentism-the efforts by a group to regain control of terrority by force so that existing state boundaries will no longer sepereate the group.
2 - secession-where y ou leave the country to form their own
3 - migration-migrate to their homeland
4 - they can form diaspora's-seperate group but living in another society
5 - International terrorism
Terrorism & terrorist groups - definition & categroies of
Terrorist Groups - groups that seek to further their political objectives through the use of violence

Terrorism - systemic use of violence for political ends intended to change attitude's & behavior

1 - National Groups-that aspire to state-hood; Basques in Spain
2 - Domestic opposition groups-want a radical change of governement in their state
3 - Offical/unoffical extension of the state-the state is usuing terrorist groups against people of the state who are critics
4 - state sponsored terroism - Saudi Arabi sponsorship of Al-Quaida
What is a theory & its 3 functions?
Theory is an attempt to make the world or some part of it more intelligable or understandable

Its a set of hypothesis that postulates the relationship between variables, often assumes or seeks to find a causal relationship between variables

3 functions : Describe, explain and Predict.
Assumptions and policy prescriptions:
1 - Human nature is good.
2 - war & conflict are teh result of flawed institutions & need to be replaced w/human institutions that meets humans needs
3 - war is an international problem that requires collective action

Policy Prescriptions:
1 - create institutions based on collective security:1 nation rises up all others put down
2 - Empasis legal processes for conflict managment
3 - States shoudl follow efforts to control arms
4 - Policy should be formulated on ethical standards of behavior as well support should be present for the pursuit of democracy
Assumptions and policy prescriptions:
1 - Human nature is bad
2 - States are the most important actors both rational & unitary all states have the same interest of gaining power
3 - conflicting interests between states leads to war regardless of international law
4 - power is critical to state survival & determining the outcome of a conflict
1 - if a state has an international agreement; it will only obey them when it suits their interests.
2 - states should never entrust security in an international organization
3 - build military capabilities
4 - beware of alliances
Traditionalism v. Behavioralism
How we can study international politics.

1 - Traditionalist - focus on description & classification of events
case study analysis --> only 1 at a time
generalizations will make you have many qualifications

1 - Behavioralist - application of scientific method & rigorus theorizing
have a statement of a relationship between variables create dependent & independent variables
stipulate conditions under which the relationship is expected to hold