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68 Cards in this Set

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What reflex in initiated by smell?
Pavlovian which induces salivation
What is the GI tract all about?
Surface area
Purpose of mastication?
Breakdown of food and the beginning of digestion of CHO
What is the function of the oral cavity?
Mastication, digestion, lubrication, taste and absorption
What is the gastric colic reflex?
After an overnight fast, putting something in the mouth initiates the colon to have a bowel movement.
What is the bump in the roof of the mouth on the hard palate called?
Torus palatineus
What is the function of the torus palatineus?
Causes the tongue to have a tighter seal.
Where is the epiglottis located?
Laryngopharynx
What is a hernia?
Movement of tissue into host compartment where it doesn't belong.
What is a diastasis recti?
Herniation of the linea alba.
What is a volvolus?
The intestine twisting upon itself.
It occurs in the sigmoid and cecum most often.
What is digestion?
Breaking down of nutriens into liquids in the mouth for absorption.
What is mastication?
Tearing or pulverizing of nutrients and mixing with salvia
What is deglutition?
Swallowing of nutrients with passage from the pharynx to the esophagus to the stomach.
Digestion
Breakdown of nutrients both mechanical and chemically for absorption. CHO in the mouth, Protein in the stomach and Fats in the small bowel.
Absorption
Nutrients to the blood stream via the hepata-venous portal system, from the small bowel to the liver to be filtered before entering the blood stream.
Defecation
Entails the gastric colic reflex due to distention/ pressure of sigmoid colon.
2 enzymes in the oral cavity
Lingual lipase & salivary amylase
3 phases of swallowing
1. Buccalvoluntary. uvula prevent reflux into nasopharynx.
2. Pharyngeal/involuntary. message to medulla to relax, epiglottis cover trachea.
3. Esophageal/involuntary.Peristalsis & lower esophageal sphincter relaxes.
What is the tissue is the esophagus?
Stratifies squamous epithleum
What orientation are the fibers of the esophagus?
Longitudinal
What is cancer of he esophagus?
Squamous CA
What is Barretts esophagus?
Adenocarcinoma
What is the benign muscle tumor?
Leiomyoma
Borborygmus
Gurgling or bowel sounds. Caused by low blood sugar.
Where is the anti-emetic center located?
At the base of the brain
What prevents the back flow of chyme into the stomach? 5/21/12
Pyloric sphincter
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine? 5/21/12
Duodenum
What is the function of the duodenum? 5/21/12
Excretion of lipase and amylase. It's the shortest part.
What is the function of the jejunum? 5/21/12
Digestion
What is the function of the ileum? 5/21/12
Absorption.
It's the longest part.
Function of large intestine? 5/21/12
Absorption of water and electrolytes, form and store and expel store feces.
Defecation reflex. 5/21/12
Stretch, squeeze and relax external sphincter.
4 Layers of GI tract. 5/21/12
Mucosa:simple stratified squamous
Submucosa:blood vessels
Muscularis: muscle layer
Serosa:tough fibrous layer
Function of muscular layers of GI tract. 5/21/12
Oblique: mixing
Circular: sphincters
Longitudinal: propulsion
What happens when there is reflux thru the LES? 5/21/12
Change from stratified simple squamous to columnar due to metaplasia which increases the risk for malignancy (adenocarcinoma).
Esophageal cancer. 5/21/12
Squamous carcinoma
Colon cancer. 5/21/12
Adenocarcinoma
Benign muscle tumor. 5/21/12
Leiomyoma
Controls quantity of chyme release from the stomach. 5/21/12
Pyloric sphincter
Function of the stomach. 5/21/12
Primary: digestion of protein, absorbs ETOH.
Secondary: mixing w/ gastric juice, chyme ( partly digested), protein done, disach, start of fat.
Tissue composition of stomach. 5/21/12
Rugae, glandular cells(produce enzymes, acid, bicarbonate & mucus), crypts to increase surface area.
Delayed gastric emptying syndrome.
5/21/12
Slowed transit time in diabetic pts. That will lead to peptic ulcers from prolonged increased acidic environment.
Bowel sounds. 5/21/12
Borborygmi due to low blood sugar levels.
Makes up the small intestine. 5/21/12
Duodenum(shortest):C-shape w/ pancreas inside.
Jejunum: start some absorption, but continue breakdown.
Ileum:(longest) absorption.
3 things excreted in the 2nd portion of the duodenum. 5/21/12
Pancreatic enzymes
Amylase
Lipase
Function of cecum and ascending colon. 5/21/12
Absorbs electrolytes and water into the blood and interstitial tissues.
Defecation reflex. 5/21/12
Stretch receptors trigger contraction of rectal muscles,
Relaxation of internal anal sphincter (invol)
Initial contraction of external sphincter
Relaxation of internal sphincter (signal brain to defecate)
Relax of external sphincter(vol)
Function of mesentery. 5/21/12
Carries SMA, SMI & Portal system, composed of thin, translucent fibrous tissue that holds intestine together to reduce volvolus.
Function of omentum. 5/21/12
Insulates, protects and stores.
Transit time of food. 5/21/12
Mouth to anus: 18-36 hrs
Esophagus: 10 sec
Stomach: 1-3 hrs
Small intestine: 7-9 hrs
Large intestine: 25-30 hrs
Rectum: 30-120 hrs
Strangulated hernia. 5/21/12
Life threatening and surgical emergent
Results of portal hyperrtension due to increase pressure in the venous system. 5/21/12
Caput medusa
Gastro esophageal varices
Hemorrhoids (last because most distal)
Liver function. 5/21/12
Process fat soluble waste
Kidney function. 5/21/12
Process water soluble waste
Gluconeogenesis. 5/21/12
When liver glucose storage empties the liver breaks fats into glucose.
Caput Medusa etiology. 5/21/12
Most likely ETOH.
S/S: edema, ascites, large umbilicus and abdominal varicosities.
NORMAL SHAPE OF ABDOMEN 5/24/12
Hour glass
ECCHYMOSIS IS SIGN OF? 5/24/12
Bleeding or trauma
ACYIVE PERISTALSIS 5/24/12
5-35/minute
> in IBS
For no BS need to listen for 3 min.
PERITONEAL FRICTION RUB INDICATES? 5/24/12
Inflammation from peritonitis
VOLUNTARY CONTRACTON OF THE ABDOMINAL MUSCLES.
5/24/12
Guarding
INVOLUNTARY CONTRACTION OF ABDOMINAL MUSCLES & RIGIDITY? 5/24/12
Peritonitis
PERITONITS CAUSES? 5/24/12
Infection
Trauma
Hemorrhage
NORMAL LIVER SIZE? 5/24/12
Vertical @midclavicular line 12-14 cm.
Inferior margin usually concave/flat, if convex=enlarged.
NORMAL ABDOMINAL PERCUSSION SOUNDS? 5/24/12
Normal-resonant
Organs-dull
Air pocket-tympanic or hyper resonant
PERITONITIS S/S.? 5/24/12
Pain
Tenderness
Guarding
Pain w/movement
Fever
TEMPORARY SHUTT DOWN OF THE BOWEL CAN LEAD TO?
5/24/12
Ileus