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96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
As a bright object moves towards you, light waves
closer together or become shorter(blue shifted)
Cooler areas on the photoshere that appears darker than the surrouning areas on the sun
Coronal holes
Violent eruptions of particels & radiation from the surface of the sun
solar flares
Arc of gas ejected from the sun
The sun and the earth are located in
a spiral arm of the Milky Way
Our sun is
average star size
Calculated by the Hubble constatn the age of the universe is
13 billion years
The theory that the universe began
Big Bang Theory
The shape of the Milky Way galaxy is
The Milky way
belongs to a small cluster of galaxies knonw as the Local Group
When the Sun's light is blocked becasue the Moon's shadow falls upon the Earth
Solar eclipse
The hottest star
Vernal equinox and Autumnal equinox
How bright a star appears from earth
apparent magnitude
Where stars form
Earths atmoshpere contains more _________than any other substance
Nitrogen and oxygen
Condensation nuclei are particles of atmoshperic dust around which
cloud droplest form
Temperature to which air must be cooled at constanct pressure to reach saturation
dew point
the gas formed by adding a third oxygen atom to an oxygenmolecule
heat that is stored in a substance
latent heat
an air mass's ability to resist rising
the transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves
cloud droplets collide to form larger droplest in a process called
the amount of energy the atomshpere absorbs depends in part on its level of
Carbon dioxide
You run over the hot sand, burns your feet what type of hear transfer is this
Current short-term in variatins in the atmoshere are referred to as
Lines on a map that connect point of equal or constant values are
Systems that lie between the poles and about 60 degrees latitude in bothe hemispheres
polar easterlies
Winds that flow between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north abd south latitude
prevailing westerlies
how do galaxies classified as E3 and E7 differ?
E3 galaxies have less elongated elliptical shapes
What are the characteristics of a glaxy that is classified as SBa?
a barred spiral glaxy with tightly wound arms and a large, bright nucleus
a record of weather data for a particular site at a particular time is using symbols is called
station model
High altitude clouds usually made of ice are
the energy that drives the water cycle
winds traveling at high speeds that encircle the Earth are called the
jet stream
examples of convection can be found in
-the inner layer of the earth magma
-the atmosphere
-the innerlayers of the sun
Which of the following plays an important role in convection?
warm material rises, while cooler more dense material sinks
The constant movement of water between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface is
the water cycle
polar and tropical regions maintain fairly constant temperatures because
the continual motion of air and water reallocates heat energy throughout the Earth
the exchange of heat or moisture with the surface over which an air mass travels is known as
air mass modification
When moist winds approach a mountain, they often drop rain as they rise over the mountain, and come down the other side of the mountain
cooler and drier
outermost layer of the atmosphere
contains concentrated ozone
most weather occurs here
cold dense air that displaces warm air, forcing the warm air up
cold front
narrow region separating any two air masses of different desities
advancing warm air that displaces cold air
warm front
A wave cyclone begins along this type of front
warm front
cold air mass that moves rapidly and overtakes a warm front
occluded front
two air masses that meet and do not advance
stationary front
an extended period of well below normal rain fall is a
An air mass that formed over a continent near the equator would be
warm and dry
hurricanes get their energy from
warm ocean waters over 80 degrees
The Fujita scale measures
tornado damge and intensity
Which of the following heats most slowly
the energy needed to raise a given volume of a substance one degree Celsius is called
specific heat
It is December and the temperature is below freezing. A low pressure center is moving into the area. You can expect
cloudy weather with snow
If the aire is holding 22 grams of water and the maximum that it could hold is 88 grams of water, what is the relative humidity?
The process in which the ocean floor returns to the earth's interior is called
sea floor spreading occurs at
mid-oceanic ridges
when two continental plates collide
both placctes push upward to form mountains
the force that moves the plates of the Earth
convection currents in magma
a fault where two plates slide past one another is called
transform boundary
the ring of fire
-is an area of high volcanic acitivity
-is found at the borders of the pacific plate
-is an area of high earth quake activity
Where can you expect the most violent earthquakes
transform boundaries
the earthquakes that are concentrated in the mid-west are caused by
the new madrid fault
volcanoes and earthquakes
-tend to occur near each other
-follow the pattern of the earth's tectonic plates
-can occur on plate boundaries in the middle of the ocean
which theory states that the Earth's crust and rigid upper mantle are divided into plates which move in different directions and rates
plate tectonics
most divergent boundaries are found
on the seafloor
Scientists rejected Wegener's hypothesis of continental drift because he
couldn't explain how or why the continents moved
When the Earth's magnetic field reverses
minerals containing iron turn in the lava which is cooling to form rocks
Crust is neither destroyed nor formed along which of the following boundaries
The San Andreas Fault is located
In California
If you plotted the epicenters of all known earth quakes on a world map, the result would show
the margins of the earth's tectonic plates
a numerical scale of earth quake magnitude that takes into account the size of the fault rupture is the
moment magnitutde scale
the point within the Earth's crust where a fault moves is called the
only these waves can pass through Earth's liquid outer core
only wave which is a transverse wave
carries the least amount of energy and acts like a water wave
surface wave
wave generated by vertical motions of the seafloor
forces per unit area acting on a material
fracture in rock along which movement occurs
what are the resources called that are replaced by natural processes at a rate that is at least equal to the rate at which they are used
renewable resource
What is the ultimate source of most forms of energy on Earth
the sun
Acid precipitation, ozone depletion, and global warming demonstrate what type of effects by humans on the atmosphere
which of these is a land resource that can be mined at a profit
mineral extraction from underground mines creates waste rock, and rainwater seeping through piles of this rock can lead to
pollution of air and streams
a renewable resource is
What is the origin of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere
photosynthetic organisms
How does ore form
-crystal setting
-chemical precipitation
which is the greatest source of air pollution in the us
motor vehicles
what is the use of organisms to help clean up pollution called
what is the process in which a mining company restores the land aftermineral extraction
which of the following is the kprimary source of carbon-monoxide air pollution
motor vehicles
which of the following gases is (are) responsible for ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere
what is the variety of species in a habitat called